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most specific symptoms of hypocalcemia are
perioral numbness and carpal pedal spasms of hand and foot
why do you get hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis
macrophages in granulomas convert vitamin d to it's active form
when you have hypocalcemia, what do you need to r/o first? explain
hypoalbuminemia. calcium binds to albumin carboxyl group, which is pH dependent. when pH decreases, calcium binding decreases
what are some treatments for hypercalcemia
loop diuretics and saline, calcitonin, bisphosphonate, ketoconazole, oral or IV phosphate
what are some treatments for hypocalcemia
treat underlying disorder, calcium supplements, vit d supplements, vit d receptor agonists in renal insuff
how do you treat acute hyperphosphatemia with adequate renal fxn
saline diuresis to cause phosphaturia
how do you treat chronic hyperphosphatemia with ESRD
dietary phosphate restricition, phosphate binders to decrease intestinal absorption, CaR antag
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