RENAL: Divalent ion metabolism

I kind of half assed this one. Way too many lists.
+ choveks sign and trousseau sign mean you have what
hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia
do you get tetany with hypo or hypercalcemia
do you get carpal pedal spasm with hypo or hypercalcemia
hypo and hypomagnesemia
do you get stridor and wheezing with hyper or hypocalcemia
do you get muscle weakness with hyper or hypocalcemia
do you get cataracts with hypo or hypercalcemia
do you get nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with hypo or hypercalcemia
do you get a short QT interval with hypo or hypercalcemia
most common symptoms with hypercalcemia
GI symptoms
most specific symptoms of hypocalcemia are
perioral numbness and carpal pedal spasms of hand and foot
what is chvoteks sign
tap on facial nerve and see grimace from facial nerve spasm with hypocalcemia
what is trousseaus sign
inflate BP cough and see outstretched hand spasm with hypocalcemia
causes of hypercalcemia
why do you get hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis
macrophages in granulomas convert vitamin d to it's active form
thiazide diuretics cause hypo or hypercalcemia
when you have hypocalcemia, what do you need to r/o first? explain
hypoalbuminemia. calcium binds to albumin carboxyl group, which is pH dependent. when pH decreases, calcium binding decreases
decreased mg blocks or increases PTH secretion?
what are some treatments for hypercalcemia
loop diuretics and saline, calcitonin, bisphosphonate, ketoconazole, oral or IV phosphate
what are some treatments for hypocalcemia
treat underlying disorder, calcium supplements, vit d supplements, vit d receptor agonists in renal insuff
you get a prolonged QT in hyper or hypophosphatemia
major CNS probems happen with hyper or hypophosphatemia
MCC cause of hyperphosphatemia
impaired GFR
how do you treat acute hyperphosphatemia with adequate renal fxn
saline diuresis to cause phosphaturia
how do you treat chronic hyperphosphatemia with ESRD
dietary phosphate restricition, phosphate binders to decrease intestinal absorption, CaR antag
how do you treat hypophosphatemia
oral or IV phosphate
you get decreased DTRs with hypo or hypermagnesia
you get hypoventilation with hyper or hypo magnesia
you get prologed PR and QT with hyper or hypomagnesia
you get u waves with hyper or hypomanesemia
what causes hypermagnesemia
tx for hypermagnesemia
stop intake of Mg. dialysis. if arrhythmia give calcium