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I kind of half assed this one. Way too many lists.

+ choveks sign and trousseau sign mean you have what

hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia

do you get tetany with hypo or hypercalcemia


do you get carpal pedal spasm with hypo or hypercalcemia

hypo and hypomagnesemia

do you get stridor and wheezing with hyper or hypocalcemia


do you get muscle weakness with hyper or hypocalcemia


do you get cataracts with hypo or hypercalcemia


do you get nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with hypo or hypercalcemia


do you get a short QT interval with hypo or hypercalcemia


most common symptoms with hypercalcemia

GI symptoms

most specific symptoms of hypocalcemia are

perioral numbness and carpal pedal spasms of hand and foot

what is chvoteks sign

tap on facial nerve and see grimace from facial nerve spasm with hypocalcemia

what is trousseaus sign

inflate BP cough and see outstretched hand spasm with hypocalcemia

causes of hypercalcemia


why do you get hypercalcemia in sarcoidosis

macrophages in granulomas convert vitamin d to it's active form

thiazide diuretics cause hypo or hypercalcemia


when you have hypocalcemia, what do you need to r/o first? explain

hypoalbuminemia. calcium binds to albumin carboxyl group, which is pH dependent. when pH decreases, calcium binding decreases

decreased mg blocks or increases PTH secretion?


what are some treatments for hypercalcemia

loop diuretics and saline, calcitonin, bisphosphonate, ketoconazole, oral or IV phosphate

what are some treatments for hypocalcemia

treat underlying disorder, calcium supplements, vit d supplements, vit d receptor agonists in renal insuff

you get a prolonged QT in hyper or hypophosphatemia


major CNS probems happen with hyper or hypophosphatemia


MCC cause of hyperphosphatemia

impaired GFR

how do you treat acute hyperphosphatemia with adequate renal fxn

saline diuresis to cause phosphaturia

how do you treat chronic hyperphosphatemia with ESRD

dietary phosphate restricition, phosphate binders to decrease intestinal absorption, CaR antag

how do you treat hypophosphatemia

oral or IV phosphate

you get decreased DTRs with hypo or hypermagnesia


you get hypoventilation with hyper or hypo magnesia


you get prologed PR and QT with hyper or hypomagnesia


you get u waves with hyper or hypomanesemia


what causes hypermagnesemia


tx for hypermagnesemia

stop intake of Mg. dialysis. if arrhythmia give calcium

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