21 terms

# Chapter 9 Statistics: Hypothesis Testing

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Null Hypothesis
denoted by Ho, is a tentative assumption about a population parameter
Alternative Hypothesis
denoted by Ha, is the opposite of what is stated in the null hypothesis
Hypothesis Testing Procedure
uses data from a sample to test the two competing statements indicated by Ho and Ha
The equality part of the hypothesis always appears in...
the null hypothesis
Lower Tail
Null hypothesis as an assumption to be challenged
Upper Tail
Alternative hypothesis as a research hypothesis
Type 1 Error
rejecting the null (Ho) when it is true
Level of significance
The probability of making a type 1 error when the null hypothesis is true as an equality
Significance Tests
Applications of hypothesis testing that only control the type 1 error
Type 2 Error
Accepting the null (Ho) when it is false
"Do not reject Ho" and "do not accept Ho"
Statisticians avoid the risk of making a Type 2 error by using..
Step 1 of Hypothesis Testing
Develop the Null and alternative hypothesis
Step 2 of Hypothesis Testing
Specify the level of significance (alpha)
Step 3 of Hypothesis Testing
collect the sample data and complete the value of the test statistic
Two-Tail
Compare, equal to or not equal
Z-test
If you know the population variance
T-test
If you do not know the population variance
Pooled-Variance
a method for estimating variance of several different populations when the mean of each population may be different, but one may assume that the variance of each population is the same
Step 4 of Hypothesis Testing
Use the value of the test statistic to compute the p-value
Reject Ho
If P-Value is less than or equal to alpha
Critical Value Approach
Use the level of significance to determine the critical value and the rejection rule. Use the value of the test statistic and the rejection rule to determine whether to reject Ho.