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AP Psychology Unit 9

STUDY
PLAY
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
zygote
the fertilized egg
embryo
the developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 week after conception to birth
teratogens
agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively influenced by experience
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
accommodation
adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (birth-2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (2-6) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
the principle that properties remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and other's mental states
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (6-11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (starting at 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display
attachment
an emotional tie with another person
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
temperament
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
basic trust
a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
self-concept
our understanding and evaluation of who we are
gender
the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define male/female
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
X chromosome
the chromosome found in both men and women
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in men
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones
role
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
gender identity
our sense of being male or female
gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics
menarche
the first menstrual period
identity
our sense of self
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships
emerging adulthood
for some period in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstration
cross sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
fluid intelligence
our intelligence to reason speedily and abstractly
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events