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______ carry oxygen-poor blood

Venae cavae and pulmonary arteries

_______ belong to the pulmonary circuit

Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins

_______ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart

Parietal pericardium

Pericardial fluid is found between

the parietal and visceral membranes

The _____ performs the work of the heart


The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between

the right atrium and right ventricle

Oxygen-poor blood passes through

the right AV (tricuspid) valve and pulmonary valve

Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by

pressure gradients

After entering the right atrium, the furthest a red blood cell can travel is the

superior vena cava

Obstructions of the ______ will cause a more severe myocardial infarction(MI) than the obstruction of any of the others.

left coronary artery (LCA)

Cardiac muscle shares this feature with skeletal muscle

cardiac muscle fibers have striations

The ______ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat

sinoatrial (SA) node

Which of these is not part of the cardiac conduction system

the tendinous cords (TC)

These are features of cardiac muscle fibers except

they have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers

This is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV)

sinoatrial (SA) node - atrioventricular (AV) node - atrioventricular (AV) bundle- Purkinje fibers - cardiocyte in LV

The pacemaker potential is a result of

Na+ inflow

The plateau in the action potential of cardiac muscle results from the action of

slow Ca+ channels

Cells of the sinoatrial node _____ during the pacemaker potential

depolarize slow

Any abnormal cardiac rhythm is called a


If the sinoatrial (SA) is damaged, the heart will likely beat at

40 to 50 bpm

The ______ provides most of the Ca2+ needed for myocardial contraction

sarcoplasmic reticulum

Atrial systole begins

immediately after the P wave.

Atrial depolarization causes

the P wave

The long plateau in the action potential observed in cardiocytes is probably related with _____ staying longer in their cytosol


The long absolute refractory period of cardiocytes

prevent tetanus

When the left ventricle contracts, the____ valve closes and the _____ valve is pushed open

mitral; aortic

Mitral valve stenosis causes blood to leak back into the _____ when the ventricle contract

left atrium

Isovolumetric contraction occurs during the ______ of the electrocardiogram.

R wave

During the isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricles

rises rapidly

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) generates a murmur associated with the _____ heart sound that occurs when the _____

lubb (SI); ventricles contract

This is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle

ventricular filling - isovolumetric contraction - ventricular ejection - isolvolumetric relaxation

Most of the ventricle filling occurs

during the atrial diastole

Congestive heart failure (CHF) of the right ventricle

can cause systemic edema

Assume that the left ventricle of a child's heart has an EDV= 90mL, and ESV= 60mL, and a cardiac output of 2,400mL/min. His SV and HR are

SV= 30mL/beat, HR= 80 bpm.

_____ increases stroke volume

Increased venous return

The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute is called

the cardiac output

Cardioinhibitory centers in the ____ receive input from ______

medulla oblongata; chemoreceptors in the aortic arch

The Frank- Starling law of the heart states that stroke volume is proportional to

the end-diastolic volume

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