(Law of Inertia) an object in motion tends to stay in motion & an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by an outside force.
Newton's 2nd Law
The relationship among an object's mass (m), acceleration (a), and an applied force (F), is Force equals mass times acceleration (F= ma).
Newton's 3rd Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces act in pairs.
Very sensitive, strong personality and imagination. Went to live at grandmother's farm with apples falling from trees. Einstein's idolized him.
a force that opposes the motion of 2 Surfaces static: force acting on objects that are not moving sliding: force acting on obj. that are sliding rolling: force acting on obj. that are rolling (duh!) fluid: force acting on anything contacting liq. and gases
Microscopic bumps on the surface of objects called _______ are what cause friction.
The fluid friction experienced by objects falling through the air.
the velocity of a falling object when a. r. equals g.
Invisible f.o.a. between all objects. Mass and distance affect gravity
electric and magnetic forces holds negatively charged electrons to the positively charged nuclei of atoms.
strong nuclear force
a powerful force of attraction holding neutrons and protons together
weak nuclear force
attractive force responsible for radioactivity- holds the neutron together and is stronger than gravity
an attractive force that acts between all obj. mass and distance affect gravity
The Law of Universal Gravity
Isaac Newton realized that the same forces and the same laws of physics apply everywhere in the universe. So, his law of gravity is called the law of universal gravitation.
Explains why a body falls down to the earth instead of towards the sun or towards a distant planet- the force of the gravity between us and earth is stronger than the force of the sun or distant planets. Narrow arrows rep. weak gravitational force
How was Neptune discovered?
while looking for the body whose gravity was affecting the orbit of Uranus.
the motion of an object after it is given thrust (forward force)
the product of an object's mass and velocity. P= MxV
law of conservation of momentum
momentum does not change it just gets transferred.
a center-directed force that continuously changes the direction of an object to make it move in a circle; any force that causes an object to move in a circular path
Horizontal and Vertical motions The 2 components of pro. motion (thanks, Fabiola!)
When the two motions are combined they form a curved path
Rocket propulsion and Newton's third law
engine thrust (forward force) pushes out rocket/rocket reacts by moving up
momentum is conserved (transferred)
According to Einstein, gravity
_________is not a force but an effect of space itself. Mass causes space to be curved and other bodies are accelerated because of the way they follow this curved space., There is no such thing as the force of gravitation. Gravitation arises when space has curvature around an unseen 4th spatial dimension
when objects collide
momentum can be conserved, some of the momentum from one object is transferred to the other
Mass vs. Weight
Mass is how much matter you have; weight is the measured RESPONSE to the pull of gravity. Weight changes with gravity; mass doesn't change
the gravitational pull on the earth; acceleration in a vacuum on earth with no a.r. until t.v.
An object's apparent weight of zero that results when there are no forces pushing up on it
when the only force acting on a falling object is gravity
Horizontal and vertical motion
The two parts of projectile motion. When the two motions are combined they form a curved path
the inward force on a body moving in a curved path around another body; a force that causes an object to move in a circle
the rocket moves forward when gases from the rear of the rocket push it in the opposite direction; , based on Newton's third law of motion.
the product of a body's mass and its velocity P=MxV
Conservation of Momentum
momentum transfers from one object to another with the total momentum being conserved; when objects collide, momentum is transferred