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the theory of epigenesis states that
adult structures in the organism develop de novo from substances present in the egg
desirable qualities in model organisms include
ease of growth, common genetic mechanisms with other organisms, production of many offspring, and short life span
why was Iceland chose for the deCODE project
icelandic individuals have a remarkable level of genetic uniformity
which of the following cell structures is directly involved in protein synthesis
rough ER and ribosomes
what chromosome has the centromere located very close to, but not on, the chromosome
G1/S and G2/M phases
Checkpoints are points between phases of the cell cycle at which a cell determines whether all the requirements necessary for each phase of the cell cycle have been properly satisfied. For example, because a cell with damaged DNA can lead to cancer if it is allowed to divide, a cell with damaged DNA usually arrests the cell cycle until the damage can be repaired. At which phase(s) of the cell cycle would a cell normally check for the integrity of its DNA?
cells that are metabolically active, but not destined to proliferate are said to be in what phase
what is the arrangement of chromosomes during metaphase
sister chromatids align along the equatorial plane of the cell
what is the fundamental difference between the product of female gametes and male gametes in humans
the production of female gametes but not male gametes involves an unequal division of cytoplasm
how did mender's work support the chromosomal theory of inheritance
the observation that chromosomes segregate independently and randomly during meiosis fit very nicely with mender's postulates
chi-square analysis can help us to decide whether what
our observations of an event differ from our expectations
what were the factors crucial to the success of gregor mendel's experiments
he kept detailed quantitative records, he chose traits that were not greatly influenced by the environment, and he observed only one or very few traits in any given experiment
he did not always allow all pea plants to self-fertilze thereby avoiding contamination from other individuals
which two genotypes in an individual would be expressed as the same phenotype in a diploid organism
homozygous dominant and heterozygous
mendel's two unit factors in pairs are most accurately known to be
two alleles on paternal and maternal homologs
what is an example of independent assortment
traits that are not on the same chromosome are inherited independently of each other
which of the following statements is true regarding a trihybrid cross between two true-breeding homozygous individuals with contrasting phenotypes
the least frequent F2 phenotypic class is recessive for all three traits
what is the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance
in codominance, both phenotypes are expressed in heterozygotes. in incomplete dominance, the heterozygotes shows a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygotes
why can multiple alleles only be studied in populations
any individual diploid organism can have, at most, two different alleles at a single locus
which of the following statements is always true when mutations occur in genes whose products are essential to an organism's survival
a homozygote for a recessive lethal allele will not survive
which term describes the phenomenon that occurs when the expression of one gene pair masks the expression of another gene pair
complementation analysis is used to determine
whether two mutations that produce the same phenotype reside in the same or different genes
a gene in which the heterozygous condition is displayed differently in males and females is referred to as
some genes and mutation vary in their phenotype expressing depending on the sex of the par ten from whom the gene is inherited. this phenomenon is known as
when morgan carried out crosses involving two x-linked genes in drosophilia, he sometimes observed new phenotypes that were not present in the parents. what did morgan propose from these observations?
the points of overlap between synapsed homologous chromosomes, called chiasmata, were points of genetic exchange
how can the order of three linked genes (A, B, C) on the same chromosome be determined?
look for DCO phenotypes involving the wild-type and mutant alleles of genes A, B, and C
When analyzing three genes that reside on the same chromosome, the expected frequency of double-crossover events can be determined by multiplying the frequency of single crossovers between each pair of genes. What would cause the number of observed double-crossover events to be less than the expected value?
why do mapping experiments become less accurate when the distances between genes become large
multiple crossovers are more common
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