Art History 1380 Prehistoric - Roman (Terms &People)
Terms in this set (48)
A convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally; also called a twisted perspective.
Greek, "great stone." A large, roughly hewn stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric structures.
Older drawings behind newer ones, drawn larger to represent closeness (in time).
A system of construction in which two upright stones (posts) support a horizontal beam (lintel).
High Relief sculpture
In relief sculpture, the subjects project from the background but remain part of it. In high-relief sculpture, the images project boldly. Carved away from the base, but still attached to the original mass.
Low Relief sculpture
In relief sculpture, the subjects project from the background but remain part of it. In low relief, or bas-relief, the projection is slight. Carved on the base.
Or bent-axis plan. A plan that incorporates two or more angular changes of direction, characteristic of Sumerian architecture.
Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull. Served to ward off the king's enemies.
In ancient Mesopotamian architecture, a monumental platform for a temple.
Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaton, abandoned the worship of most of the Egyptian gods in favor of Aton, identified with the sun disk, whom he declared to be the universal and only god. He built his own city, now called Amarna, and shrines. Made profound changes in Egyptian arm. His art is a deliberate reaction against tradition. The curious androgynous image may be an attempt to portray the pharaoh as Aton, the sexless sun disk. His body is curiously misshapen, with weak arms, a narrow waist, protruding belly, wide hips, and fatty thighs.
A rule, for example, of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of "correct" proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings. The fifth-century BCE sculptor Polykleitos wrote the Canon, a treatise incorporating his formula for the perfectly proportioned statue.
A hall with a roof supported by columns.
The first artist in history whose name is known, established the tradition of monumental stone architecture in Egypt in the funerary complex and Stepped Pyramid he built for King Djoser at Saqqara.
In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force. (soul)
Relief sculpture where the outlines of the figures have been carved into the surface of the stone, instead of being formed by cutting away the background
A mythical Egyptian beast with a body of a lion and the head of a human.
Corbel: A projecting wall memeber used as a support for some element in the superstructure. Also, courses of stone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it. Two such walls, meeting at the topmost course, create a corbeled arch or corbeled vault.
Naturalism (vs. realism)
The style of painted or sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition.
Greek, "high city." In ancient Greece, usually the site of the city's most important temple(s).
Black-figure painting technique
In early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes.
Disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually the hips and legs one way, shoulders & chest another), creating a counterpositioning of the body about its central axis. Sometimes called "weight shift" because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other.
One of the two systems (orders) invented in ancient Greece for articulating the three units of the elevation of a classical building-- the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure. Doric order is characterized by capitals with funnel-shaped echinuses (columns without bases), and frieze of triglyphs and metopes.
Characterized by volutes, capitals, columns and bases, and uninterrupted frieze.
Iktinos and Kalliecrates
The architects of the Parthenon.
Greek, "young woman." An Archaic Greek statue of a young woman.
Greek, "young man." An Archaic Greek statue of a young man.
An ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water.
The square panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief.
Temple of Athena Parthenos. The first of the four main 5th century BCE buildings on the Acropolis to be built. May be viewed as the ideal solution to the Greek architect's quest for perfect proportions in Doric temple design. Its well-spaced columns, with their slender shafts, and the capitals, with their straight sided conical echinuses, are the ultimate refinement of the bulging and squat Doric columns.
-Columns outside all around but also inside
-Circle around dots in one chamber, columns on a base (ionic components)
MODIFICATIONS (how it will impact)
1. More slender columns (looks as if it'll fall in, but it holds up --> represents strength)
2. Echinuses: curved slightly upward and outward
In classical architecture, the triangular space (gable) at the end of a building, formed by the ends of the sloping roof above the colonnade.
Pericles initiated the building of the Acropolis structures. The Acropolis was the high point of the city, the original fortifiable area before the city of Athens expanded. Temples topped the Acropolis, which was behind the Pnyx hill where the assembly of the people gathered. Pericles' preeminent building project was the Parthenon (447-432 B.C.), on the Acropolis.
In classical architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides.
A sculptor and writer who defined the high classical Greek canon for representing the human figure.
Red-figure painting technique
In later Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background, with painted linear details; the revers of black-figure painting.
cloth that appears to cling to the body in animated folds while it reveals the contours of the form beneath. This sculptural characteristic is found in figures from the classical and Hellenistic periods
Perspective; a method of presenting an illusion of the 3D world on a 2D surface. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended distance between eye and object increases.
Became the first Roman emperor after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BCE. Augustan art revived the Classical style with frequent references to Periclean Athens. Augustus's ambitious building program made lavish use of marble, and his portraits always depicted him as an idealized youth.
(Roman) well educated and loved philosophy, opposed war but had to defend the empire, ruled at the end of the Pax Romana. Good emperor.
In Roman architecture, a public building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side.
Equestrian portrait type
Subject depicted horse back riding. Expresses Roman emperor's majesty and authority
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
Fresco (wall painting technique)
Painting on lime plaster, either dry (dry fresco, or fresco secco) or wet (true, or buon fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster.
In Roman sculpture, illusionistic technique that creates the idea of space with various scales of relief to express foreground and background.
Linear (one-point) perspective
Perspective; a method of presenting an illusion of the 3D world on a 2D surface. Linear is the most common type. All parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (horizon line of the picture), associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem.
The shaping or fashioning of 3D forms in a soft material, such as clay.
a modern art-historical term used to describe the re-use of earlier building material or decorative sculpture on new monuments
Vaulting (barrel vaults and groin faults: forms, purposes, spatial effects)
Barrel; tunnel. Groin vault; intersection of 2 tunnel walls, opens up freedom of movement.
True to natural appearance; super-realistic.
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