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land bridge Eurasia

Most likely the first Americans were people who crossed _____ from _____ to North America

small, scattered, and impermanent settlements

Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America lived in...

East Indies

After his first voyage Christopher Columbus believed he had sailed to

valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silks

The Christian Crusades were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they brought back news of

raw materials

In the new interdependent global economic system that emerged after Columbus' discovery the "new" world provided

deaths of Natives

European contact with Native Americans most significantly led to

God, spread christianity, escape dubious past, seek adventure, search for gold

Men became conquistadors because they wanted to

South America destroyed Incas

Pizzaro explored

brutal and exploitative

The treatment of native americans by the spanish conquistadors can be described as

Pueblo Indians Catholic Church New Mexico

As a result of Pope's Rebellion in 1680 the ____ _______ destroyed every _____ ______ in _____ _________

Treaty of Tordesilla

Treaty that secured Spanish titles to lands in Americas by dividing them with portugal

Pope's Rebellion

Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion

Black Legend

Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good


The principal export of the Carolinas

Roman Catholics

The Maryland colony was founded to establish a religious refuge for

Protestants and Catholics

After the Act of Toleration in 1649, Maryland provided religious freedom for all


Representative government was first introduced to America in the colony of

John Smith tobacco

Jamestown was saved by _______ _____ and John Rolfe's inroduction to _______

uprooted sheep farmers from England

Many early puritan settlers of America were

defeat of the Spanish Armada

Spain's dream empire began to fade with

died from European disease, lacked unity, could be disposed of, were not a reliable labor source

The native peoples of Virginia (Powhatans) sucumbed to Europeans because they

destruction of soil, demand for controlled labor, prosperity, plantation system

The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in:

starvation, disease, and Indian raids

The early years of Jamestown were characterized by

unemployment, thirst for adventure, desires for markets, religious freedom

Motives for English colonization


A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony was to create a refuge for


Tobacco was considered a ____ man's crop because it could be produced easy and quickly

fundamental rights

Under the Barbados slave code of 1661 slaves were denied the most

defensive buffer South Carolina

The colony of Georgia was founded as a ______ ________ for ______ _________

staple crop

Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similiar in that they were all economically dependent on the export of a

convicted criminals prisoners

The lowest class of whites in the colonies consisted of _______ and _______ shipped to America by British authorities


German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in

New England, Africa, and the West Indies

The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among the ports of

new light

Ministers who supported the Great Awakening


The case that established the precendent that true statments about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel

MayFlower Compact government

The _____ _________ can best be described as a promising step toward genuine self-_________

white male landowners

Among Puritans ______, _________ __________ could vote

Rhode Island

As a colony _____ _______ was individualistic and independent


King Philip's War resulted in the lasting defeat of New England's _____

New England Confederation

The _____ _____ ________ was designed to bolster colonial defense

Fundamental Orders substantial citizens

Settler of the Connecticut River colony developed a document known as _____ _______ which established a regime democratically controlled by ________ ________

religious refuges

New York and Pennsylvania were both founded as

Sir Edmund Andros

The power of town meetings were curbed, officials tried to enforced the Navigation Law, taxes were levied without consent of elected representatives, and smuggling was suppressed as a result of __ ______ _____ rule


Indian policy in early Pennsylvania can best be described as

middle colonies

The ____ _______ were notable for their unusual degree of democractic contorl

African Slaves

____ _____ began to replace indentured servants as the primary labor supply in the plantation colonies in the 1680s


Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who would pay the trans-Atlantic passage for laborers

half-way covenant

Formula devised by the Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion

indentured servants

English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony

Indian attacks

The immediate reason for Bacon's Rebellion was


Urban development in the colonial South was ____ to emerge


The New England family can best be described as

Salem Witch Trials

The result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusettes

fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce

The New England economy dependIng heavily upon


In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, the New England colonies had more _______ economy


The _______ all wanted to break away from the Church of England and estbalish a new "purified" church; Plymoth

King Philips War

The last major Indian effort to halt New Englander's encroachment on their lands

fishing and shipbuilding

The 2 major nonfarming industries of Massachusetts Bay


The most important economic enterprise in the American colonies was

Congregational and Anglican

The only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America

The Great Awakening

The first spontaneous mass movement of the American people, which underminded the prestige of the clergy, split colonial churches into several competing deonominations, and led to the fouding of Princeton and Dartmouth

New England

In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted by

the king

By 1775, most governors of American colonies were appointed by


In colonial elections the right to vote was reserved for

tiny compared with the number in England

By the mid 1700s the number of poor people in American colonies remained

natural fertility

The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed to Americans

ethnic and religious toleration, basic English language, protestant religion, opporutnity for social mobility

By mid eighteenth century North American colonies shared all of the following


The theory that held that colonies existed primarily to provide the mother country raw materials

Navigation Laws

The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain


The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that genreated the most colonial grievance


The one valuable resource in New France

Louisiana Mississippi

The French wanted to control ________ because they would then control the mouth of the _______

The 7 years war

The French and Indian War was also known in Europe as

Albany Congress

The long range purpose of the _______ _________ was to achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat


In the peace arrangements that ended the French and Indian War _____ surrendered al of its territory claims in North America

British invincibility

For the American colonies the French and Indian War ended the myth of

melted away

With the end of the French and Indian War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the American colonies


In the wake of the ________ of 1763 American colonist moved west, defying it

military strategy French Canada

William Pitt became Prime Minister during the French and Indian War he focused his _______ ________ on the capture of ______ ________

french fur trappers

The coureurs de bois wee

loosely enforced

Before 1763 the Navigation Laws were

sugar act

The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the CROWN was the


______ passed the Stamp tax not the colonists

B. 1767 A. 1770 C.1770s D. 1774

Arrange these events in order A. Boston Massacre B. Townshend Acts C. Tea Act D. Intolerable Acts

First Continental Congress

The _____ _________ __________ was called in order to consider ways of readdressing colonial grievances


Regarding American Independence only a _____ supported it

Stamp Sugar Townshend

Unlike the _______ Act, the ______ Act and the ____ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports

committee of correspondence

The local ______ __ ________ organized by Samuel Adams kept opposition to the British alive through the exchange of propaganda

weaken the British

The primary French motive in aiding the Americans was to


The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army


Another name for American Tories


American Patriots

select George Washington Washington to head the army

Perhaps the most important single action of the 2nd continental congress was to

explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted

One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to

common sense democratic republic

Thomas Paine's pamphlet _____ ________ called for a _____ ______

Loyalist Tories Whigs

Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled ____ or ______ and the independence seeking Patriots were called _______

minority movement

Like many revolutions the American Revolution was a

Hessians British

George Washington helped restore condidence in American's military when he defeated the _______ at Trenton and the _______ at Princeton

Saratoga France

The Battle of _______ was a key victory for the American because it brought the colonists much-needed aid formal alliance with _______

New England, the middle colonies, the South

The Revolutionary war began with fighting in the ____; then in 1777-1778 the fighting was concentrated in _______ and the fighitng concliuded in ______

its alliance with France

The generous terms in the Treaty of Paris from Britain can be looked at as Britain trying to persuade America to abandon


Some ________ nations joined the British during the revolutionary war because they believed that a British vicotry would restrain American expansion West

rebuplican motherhood

The idea that American woman had the speical responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children

Articles of Confederation

The first constitutional government of the United States


The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of the

individual freedoms

One of the major criticisms of the Constituion as drafted in Philidelphia was that it did not provide guarantees for

necessary and proper or elastic

Alex Hamilitons proposed bank of the United States was based on the _____ and__________ or ___________ clauses in the constitution

limited, sucess

Alexander Hamilton believed that a _________ national bank was beneficial becuase people to who government owed money would work hard to make the nation a __________

Whiskey Rebellion

The ________ __________ of 1794 arose in the southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government levied an excise tax on whiskey

Alien and Sedition

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to the ____and ________ acts

increased the years of legalization for immigrants to 14 years

The Alien Act


Washington's ________ Proclamation of 1793 was based on calculations of America's self-interest

first amendment freedoms

The Sedition Act threatened the


Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which the _______ retained the majority of political power


Secret code names for 3 french agents who attempted to extract bribes from American Diplomats in 1797

House of Representatives

An unexpected deadlock with Aaron Burr meant that Jefferson had to be elected by the

excise tax

Jefferson quickly overturned the federalists policy of the

Marbury vs. Madison

The case of _____ vs_________ established the principle that the Supreme Court had the right to determine the constitutionality of legislation

Thomas Jefferson

The greatest political beneficiary of the Louisiana Purchase was

midnight judges

The term "____ _______" refers to the Federalists judges appointed by Adams at teh last moments of his administration

embargo act

Jefferson's _________ ________ provided that America would prohibit all foreign trade


When it came to the major Federalists economic programs Thomas Jefferson as president left practically all of them


Thomas Jefferson was conscience stricken about the Louisiana Purchase because he belived the act to be

forced enlistment

The British policy of impressments was a kind of

war hawks

The ___ ______ demanded war with Britain becaue they wanted to wipe out renewed Indian resistance, defend American rights, gain more territory, and have revenge for American sailors


Lewis and Clark did not make ________ witih several Indian nations

Macon's Bill No. 2

This permitted trade with all the nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted their commericial restrictions on American trade the U.S> would stop trading with the other

Missouri Compromise

The _____ _______ admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and provided that slavery would not be permitted anywhere in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri

McCulloch vs. Maryland

In the case ______ vs. __________ Justice John Marshal held that the federal bank of the u.s. was constitutional and no state had a right to tax it

star spangled banner

Written by Frances Scott Key

36' 30

As a result of the Missouri Compromise slavery was banned _ _ in the Lousiana Purchase territory

the writing of the Star Spangled Banner

The British attack on Baltimore inspired

Battle of New Orleans

The __________ of ____ _________ unleashed a wave of nationalism and self-confidence

little importance

From a global perspective the war of 1812 was of

state's rights

Justice John Marshall rulings limited the extent of


Andrew Jackson military exploits were crucial in gaining possesions of

Monore Doctrine

A respsonse to the apparent designed of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon; the doctrine of noncolonization

over speculation of land

One of the major cause of the Panic of 1819 was

Treaty of 1818

Called for a 10 year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects

Tariff of 1816

The first in American history that aimed to protect American industry


The four way campaign invovlving Clay, Jackson, Crawford, and Quincy Adams was held in what year

John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson 1828

Which election dealt with mudslinging; year and people

Santa Ana

Mexican general and dictator whose large army failed to defeat Texas

Stephen Austin

Original leader of American settlers in Texas who obtained a huge land grant from the Mexican government

Henry Clay, secretary of state

When John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1825 he was charged by his political opponet with haveing struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed _______ to become __________

John Quincy Adams

Who was one of the least successful presidents in U.S. history

spoils system

The purpose of the ___ _____ was to reward political supporters with public offices

tariff policy

The "nullification crisis" of 1828-1833 erupted over

Force Bill

The ___ ____ of 1833 provided that the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff DUTIES

forced removal

The policy of Jacksonian administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was

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