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160 terms

AP US History Chap 1-15

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land bridge Eurasia
Most likely the first Americans were people who crossed _____ from _____ to North America
small, scattered, and impermanent settlements
Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America lived in...
East Indies
After his first voyage Christopher Columbus believed he had sailed to
valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silks
The Christian Crusades were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they brought back news of
raw materials
In the new interdependent global economic system that emerged after Columbus' discovery the "new" world provided
deaths of Natives
European contact with Native Americans most significantly led to
God, spread christianity, escape dubious past, seek adventure, search for gold
Men became conquistadors because they wanted to
South America destroyed Incas
Pizzaro explored
brutal and exploitative
The treatment of native americans by the spanish conquistadors can be described as
Pueblo Indians Catholic Church New Mexico
As a result of Pope's Rebellion in 1680 the ____ _______ destroyed every _____ ______ in _____ _________
Treaty of Tordesilla
Treaty that secured Spanish titles to lands in Americas by dividing them with portugal
Pope's Rebellion
Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion
Black Legend
Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good
rice
The principal export of the Carolinas
Roman Catholics
The Maryland colony was founded to establish a religious refuge for
Protestants and Catholics
After the Act of Toleration in 1649, Maryland provided religious freedom for all
Virginia
Representative government was first introduced to America in the colony of
John Smith tobacco
Jamestown was saved by _______ _____ and John Rolfe's inroduction to _______
uprooted sheep farmers from England
Many early puritan settlers of America were
defeat of the Spanish Armada
Spain's dream empire began to fade with
died from European disease, lacked unity, could be disposed of, were not a reliable labor source
The native peoples of Virginia (Powhatans) sucumbed to Europeans because they
destruction of soil, demand for controlled labor, prosperity, plantation system
The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in:
starvation, disease, and Indian raids
The early years of Jamestown were characterized by
unemployment, thirst for adventure, desires for markets, religious freedom
Motives for English colonization
Catholics
A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony was to create a refuge for
poor
Tobacco was considered a ____ man's crop because it could be produced easy and quickly
fundamental rights
Under the Barbados slave code of 1661 slaves were denied the most
defensive buffer South Carolina
The colony of Georgia was founded as a ______ ________ for ______ _________
staple crop
Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similiar in that they were all economically dependent on the export of a
convicted criminals prisoners
The lowest class of whites in the colonies consisted of _______ and _______ shipped to America by British authorities
Pennsylvania
German settlement in the colonies was especially heavy in
New England, Africa, and the West Indies
The "triangular trade" involved the sale of rum, molasses, and slaves among the ports of
new light
Ministers who supported the Great Awakening
Zenger
The case that established the precendent that true statments about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel
MayFlower Compact government
The _____ _________ can best be described as a promising step toward genuine self-_________
white male landowners
Among Puritans ______, _________ __________ could vote
Rhode Island
As a colony _____ _______ was individualistic and independent
Indians
King Philip's War resulted in the lasting defeat of New England's _____
New England Confederation
The _____ _____ ________ was designed to bolster colonial defense
Fundamental Orders substantial citizens
Settler of the Connecticut River colony developed a document known as _____ _______ which established a regime democratically controlled by ________ ________
religious refuges
New York and Pennsylvania were both founded as
Sir Edmund Andros
The power of town meetings were curbed, officials tried to enforced the Navigation Law, taxes were levied without consent of elected representatives, and smuggling was suppressed as a result of __ ______ _____ rule
benevolent
Indian policy in early Pennsylvania can best be described as
middle colonies
The ____ _______ were notable for their unusual degree of democractic contorl
African Slaves
____ _____ began to replace indentured servants as the primary labor supply in the plantation colonies in the 1680s
headright
Maryland and Virginia's system of granting land to anyone who would pay the trans-Atlantic passage for laborers
half-way covenant
Formula devised by the Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion
indentured servants
English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony
Indian attacks
The immediate reason for Bacon's Rebellion was
slow
Urban development in the colonial South was ____ to emerge
stable
The New England family can best be described as
Salem Witch Trials
The result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusettes
fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce
The New England economy dependIng heavily upon
diversified
In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, the New England colonies had more _______ economy
Separatists
The _______ all wanted to break away from the Church of England and estbalish a new "purified" church; Plymoth
King Philips War
The last major Indian effort to halt New Englander's encroachment on their lands
fishing and shipbuilding
The 2 major nonfarming industries of Massachusetts Bay
agriculture
The most important economic enterprise in the American colonies was
Congregational and Anglican
The only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America
The Great Awakening
The first spontaneous mass movement of the American people, which underminded the prestige of the clergy, split colonial churches into several competing deonominations, and led to the fouding of Princeton and Dartmouth
New England
In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted by
the king
By 1775, most governors of American colonies were appointed by
landowners
In colonial elections the right to vote was reserved for
tiny compared with the number in England
By the mid 1700s the number of poor people in American colonies remained
natural fertility
The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed to Americans
ethnic and religious toleration, basic English language, protestant religion, opporutnity for social mobility
By mid eighteenth century North American colonies shared all of the following
mercantilism
The theory that held that colonies existed primarily to provide the mother country raw materials
Navigation Laws
The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain
tea
The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that genreated the most colonial grievance
fur
The one valuable resource in New France
Louisiana Mississippi
The French wanted to control ________ because they would then control the mouth of the _______
The 7 years war
The French and Indian War was also known in Europe as
Albany Congress
The long range purpose of the _______ _________ was to achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat
France
In the peace arrangements that ended the French and Indian War _____ surrendered al of its territory claims in North America
British invincibility
For the American colonies the French and Indian War ended the myth of
melted away
With the end of the French and Indian War, the disunity, jealousy, and suspicion that had long existed in the American colonies
Proclamation
In the wake of the ________ of 1763 American colonist moved west, defying it
military strategy French Canada
William Pitt became Prime Minister during the French and Indian War he focused his _______ ________ on the capture of ______ ________
french fur trappers
The coureurs de bois wee
loosely enforced
Before 1763 the Navigation Laws were
sugar act
The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the CROWN was the
Parliament
______ passed the Stamp tax not the colonists
B. 1767 A. 1770 C.1770s D. 1774
Arrange these events in order A. Boston Massacre B. Townshend Acts C. Tea Act D. Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress
The _____ _________ __________ was called in order to consider ways of readdressing colonial grievances
minority
Regarding American Independence only a _____ supported it
Stamp Sugar Townshend
Unlike the _______ Act, the ______ Act and the ____ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports
committee of correspondence
The local ______ __ ________ organized by Samuel Adams kept opposition to the British alive through the exchange of propaganda
weaken the British
The primary French motive in aiding the Americans was to
congress
The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army
Loyalists
Another name for American Tories
whigs
American Patriots
select George Washington Washington to head the army
Perhaps the most important single action of the 2nd continental congress was to
explain to the rest of the world why the colonies had revolted
One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to
common sense democratic republic
Thomas Paine's pamphlet _____ ________ called for a _____ ______
Loyalist Tories Whigs
Americans who opposed independence for the colonies were labeled ____ or ______ and the independence seeking Patriots were called _______
minority movement
Like many revolutions the American Revolution was a
Hessians British
George Washington helped restore condidence in American's military when he defeated the _______ at Trenton and the _______ at Princeton
Saratoga France
The Battle of _______ was a key victory for the American because it brought the colonists much-needed aid formal alliance with _______
New England, the middle colonies, the South
The Revolutionary war began with fighting in the ____; then in 1777-1778 the fighting was concentrated in _______ and the fighitng concliuded in ______
its alliance with France
The generous terms in the Treaty of Paris from Britain can be looked at as Britain trying to persuade America to abandon
Indian
Some ________ nations joined the British during the revolutionary war because they believed that a British vicotry would restrain American expansion West
rebuplican motherhood
The idea that American woman had the speical responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children
Articles of Confederation
The first constitutional government of the United States
Cabinet
The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of the
individual freedoms
One of the major criticisms of the Constituion as drafted in Philidelphia was that it did not provide guarantees for
necessary and proper or elastic
Alex Hamilitons proposed bank of the United States was based on the _____ and__________ or ___________ clauses in the constitution
limited, sucess
Alexander Hamilton believed that a _________ national bank was beneficial becuase people to who government owed money would work hard to make the nation a __________
Whiskey Rebellion
The ________ __________ of 1794 arose in the southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government levied an excise tax on whiskey
Alien and Sedition
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to the ____and ________ acts
increased the years of legalization for immigrants to 14 years
The Alien Act
Neutrality
Washington's ________ Proclamation of 1793 was based on calculations of America's self-interest
first amendment freedoms
The Sedition Act threatened the
states
Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which the _______ retained the majority of political power
XYZ
Secret code names for 3 french agents who attempted to extract bribes from American Diplomats in 1797
House of Representatives
An unexpected deadlock with Aaron Burr meant that Jefferson had to be elected by the
excise tax
Jefferson quickly overturned the federalists policy of the
Marbury vs. Madison
The case of _____ vs_________ established the principle that the Supreme Court had the right to determine the constitutionality of legislation
Thomas Jefferson
The greatest political beneficiary of the Louisiana Purchase was
midnight judges
The term "____ _______" refers to the Federalists judges appointed by Adams at teh last moments of his administration
embargo act
Jefferson's _________ ________ provided that America would prohibit all foreign trade
intact
When it came to the major Federalists economic programs Thomas Jefferson as president left practically all of them
unconstitutional
Thomas Jefferson was conscience stricken about the Louisiana Purchase because he belived the act to be
forced enlistment
The British policy of impressments was a kind of
war hawks
The ___ ______ demanded war with Britain becaue they wanted to wipe out renewed Indian resistance, defend American rights, gain more territory, and have revenge for American sailors
treaties
Lewis and Clark did not make ________ witih several Indian nations
Macon's Bill No. 2
This permitted trade with all the nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted their commericial restrictions on American trade the U.S> would stop trading with the other
Missouri Compromise
The _____ _______ admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and provided that slavery would not be permitted anywhere in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri
McCulloch vs. Maryland
In the case ______ vs. __________ Justice John Marshal held that the federal bank of the u.s. was constitutional and no state had a right to tax it
star spangled banner
Written by Frances Scott Key
36' 30
As a result of the Missouri Compromise slavery was banned _ _ in the Lousiana Purchase territory
the writing of the Star Spangled Banner
The British attack on Baltimore inspired
Battle of New Orleans
The __________ of ____ _________ unleashed a wave of nationalism and self-confidence
little importance
From a global perspective the war of 1812 was of
state's rights
Justice John Marshall rulings limited the extent of
Florida
Andrew Jackson military exploits were crucial in gaining possesions of
Monore Doctrine
A respsonse to the apparent designed of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon; the doctrine of noncolonization
over speculation of land
One of the major cause of the Panic of 1819 was
Treaty of 1818
Called for a 10 year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects
Tariff of 1816
The first in American history that aimed to protect American industry
1824
The four way campaign invovlving Clay, Jackson, Crawford, and Quincy Adams was held in what year
John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson 1828
Which election dealt with mudslinging; year and people
Santa Ana
Mexican general and dictator whose large army failed to defeat Texas
Stephen Austin
Original leader of American settlers in Texas who obtained a huge land grant from the Mexican government
Henry Clay, secretary of state
When John Quincy Adams was elected president in 1825 he was charged by his political opponet with haveing struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed _______ to become __________
John Quincy Adams
Who was one of the least successful presidents in U.S. history
spoils system
The purpose of the ___ _____ was to reward political supporters with public offices
tariff policy
The "nullification crisis" of 1828-1833 erupted over
Force Bill
The ___ ____ of 1833 provided that the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff DUTIES
forced removal
The policy of Jacksonian administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was
second bank
While in existence the ________ _________ of the United States was the depository of the funds of the national government
hatred of Andrew Jackson
The "cement" that held the Whig Party together in its formative days was
Texas
President Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend the recongintion to and annex the new _______ Republic because anti-slavery groups in the U.S. opposed the expansion of slavery
William Harrison
Who was the Tippecanoe in the Whig's 1840 campaign
South
The section that was hurt most by the Tariff of 1828
Panic of 1837
These all caused the _______ _ ________ rampant speculation, Bank War, financial problems abroad, failure of wheat crops
veto of the re-charter of the bank of U.S.
This was an expansion of the presidential power done by Andrew Jackson
American System
Henry Clay proposes this idea to help stabliize the economy with a bank, improved infrastructure, and protective tariffs
James Madison
Father of the Constitution
Tories
Loyalists=
Whigs
Patriots=