102 terms

APWH Unit 1

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Terms in this set (...)

hunting and gathering societies were marked by...
-subsistence farming
-limited trade
-little specialization of labor
the human species was characterized in the Paleolithic Age by all of the following EXCEPT
the developement of agricultural-based economies
women were important contributors to the Agricultural Revolution because they were likely the ones who...
gathered edible plants and knew where grains grew
All of the follow were features of the civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River EXCEPT
religious systems that had sacrifice rituals
Which of the following locations was one of the earliest Neolithic settlements?
Catal Huyuk
Which of the following is NOT generally considered to be an attribute of "civilization"?
the absence of social class divisions
One of the philosophical innovations of Hammurabi's law code was that...
a consistent set of regulations should govern society
which of the following are the Egyptians thought to have originated?
the manufacture of paper
What do researchers now think brought about the fall of the Indus River Society?
-fighting between ethnic groups
-enviromental factors
-population growth
Which best describes the term patriarchal?
Women's inferior status places them under the protection of male and famile members.
While sharing the same language and customs, relations between Mesopotamian city-states were
Characterized by constant conflict.
Which of the following female pharaohs was the most powerful in ancient Egypt?
Hatshepsut
How is the scene from the Egyptian "Book the Dead" similar to Christian religious beliefs?
Each religion has an idea about being judged by a God after death.
The Neolithic Revolution wa characterized by the
Change from nomadic herding to settled farming.
Fundamental concpets of Egyptian religion were based upon
The vision of a cosmic order that is rooted in the idea of god-kings.
How did the harshness and ruggedness of the terrain in the Andes Mountains affect the way that societies evolved there?
People were forced to cooperate with each other and create an effective division of labor.
In traditional Chinese culture, which philosophy had the greatest influence on the development of social order and political organization?
Confucianism
In the Zhou dynasty, the Mandate of Heaven meant that rulers
Were allowed to keep their power if they ruled justly and wisely.
In China, Confucianism emphasized the idea that
Individuals should know and do what is expected of them in society.
All of the following were part of the Confucian social order EXCEPT
chastity by husbands
Why was the Zhou dynasty in China so long-lived?`
due to the ideas of Confucianism emphasizing the duty of emperors
Why were bronze and oracle bones so important to the Shang?
Oracle bones were thought to predict the future and bronze was a sign of wealth.
The "Son of Heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following EXCEPT
an explanation of the decline of dynasties
Which of the following staple crops is most associated with the rise of Mesoamerican civilizations?
maize
Which of the following was the most important trade item for Nubians?
iron
Daoists would agree with Confucianism on which of the following
the dislike of greed
All of the following are true of the early Amerindian civilizations in Central and South America EXCEPT
economies based mostly on trade
One similarity in the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, ancient Indian (Harappan), and ancient Chinese civilizations was that they each developed
a system of writing
A characteristic the Shang shared with Egyptians was which of the following
development of a writing system
The period at the end of the Zhou Dynasty and just before Chinese unification is called
the Warring States Period
Which society has a language that is not deciphered yet historians have examined extensive murals, paintings, and the royal palace on their island homeland to better undeerstand their life?
Minoans
What factor accountd for the Assyrians' success in creating their empire?
-They had a large army on horseback
-They made and used iron weapons
-Their leaders ruled with ruthlessness
Which people developed the world's first alphabet?
the Phoenicians
The innovation most associated with the ancient Hebrews is
monotheistic worship
Ninevah was the capital city for
The Assyrians
Which of the following is NOT related to the Jewish faith?
son of heaven
Chrisians incorporated the Jewish books of the Torah as
the first five books of the Old Testament
What statement best characterizes the Phoenicians?
Trade, ships, and carthage
From which of the following did the Phoenicians extract a purple dye?
the murex snail
Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the decline of the Mycenaeans?
internal political conflict and cultural decline
"The (re is) persistence of pagan practices and folk beliefs among newly Christianized peoples- as in the morphing of local deities into minor saints, or the conversion of pagan holidays like the winter and summer solstices into Christian ones like Christmas and St. John's Eve."

The description above best illustrates which idea?
A function of syncretism
According to Eusebius, Constantine's conversion to Christianity was driven by which of the following?
A desire to create a more stable and unified Roman empire
Which of the followingis most directly related to Constantine's conversion to Christianity?
The successful conversion of the Roman empire to Christianity
Which people developed the first usage of coins?
the Lydians
Darius , the king of Persia, accomplised all of the following EXCEPT
freeing the Hebrews and helping them rebuild
Which of the following paths connected Persia roughly from east to west?
Great Royal Road
All of the following are characteristics that the Greek city-states had in common EXCEpt
similar government and legal systems
Sparta, the Greek city- state, was founded on what beliefs and values?
Strength, courge, endurance, and loyalty
In Ancient Greece, which factor did NOT keep Greek city- states apart?
Each city-state spoke a different language and worshipped different deities
What was a big difference between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta?
Athenians were more the philosophical type, Spartans loved battle
Socrates, an Athenian philosopher, taught that philosophy should teach
question anyone and anything in order to know yourself
The distinctive features of the polis were an acropolis and agora. Acropolis and agora mean
"highest city" and "open place"
The statuary below was produced in
ancient Greece
Which statement best refers to Alexander the Great?
He typically rules through local hierarchies
The Hellenistic empire of Alexander
blended culutral characteristics of the Mediterranean and the Middle East
In Greek society, women were treated as...
inferior to men both socially and politically
What is the best definition of a satrap?
the local ruler of a province
Which of the following is NOT a tenet of Zoroastrianism?
belief in reincarnation of the dead
One major irony of Athenian democracy was
an abundance of slaves
Which of the follwing contributed MOST to the decline of both the Roman and Han empires?
growing reliance on mercenary units
what was one of the factors that led to the fall of Rome?
Internal decay and overexpansion
What was the first united Ancient Chinese dynasty?
Qin
According to the teachings of Confucius, the key to the successful organization of society is that
society should follow rules of order and conduct
What do the Code of Hammurabi and Roman Law have in common?
They both represented important steps away form arbitary exercise of power
Which of the following contributed significantly to the fall of BOTH the western Roman and the Han empires?
Nomadic invaders
What developments are true of Ancient China?
-the emperor was the supreme ruler
-Han rulers installed an effective bureaucracy
-Improved infrastucture and fortifications defended China from invasion
Looking at the view of the Chinese government in the document above, what might be the best historical interpretation of this document?
For the Chinese, culture and morality of the government is more important than politics and military might.
In document 1, Augustus says " I transferred the state from my own power to the control of Roman Senate and People" because
He wants to emphasize Rome is a Republic and holds democratic ideas.
What is the central disagreement the two documents?
How much power Augustus actually possessed
Which of the following themes do BOTH document illustrate?
State Building Expansion Conflict
Attempts to save Roman Empire from ruin included
moving the center of power away from Rome to Constantinople
Which of the following is true of BOTH the Roman Empire and the Han Empire?
Both empires were characterized by long periods of effective centralized governance
What were the Rock and Pillars Edicts that Ashoka created?
Large rocks and pillars that had laws written on them
Which socia group was so marginalized in Indian society that they were not even a part of the offical varna system?
Dalits
In India's social structure, what were the levels of India's caste system from highwst to lowest?
Brahmins, Kshatriyans, Vaishyans, Shudras
Which of the following is Not among the practices of Jainism?
Farming in order to stay close to the land
What is a major similarity between Hinduism and Buddhism?
Both religions accept that souls can reach spiritual perfection
What aspect of Buddhist expansion into China is demostrated by the passage above?
Buddhist missonaries preached that Buddhism and existing Chinese religions could coexist and even be practiced simultaneously
Based on the passage above and, which Chinese class would be most resistant to Buddhist influnce?
Scholar gentry
After six years of strict asceticism, Siddhartha Gautama decided to
adhere to a "Middle Path" of moderatio
Which of the following statements would LEAST likely fit in with the orginal teachings of Buddha?
Enlightment can most effectivelybe attained by venerating many gods and bodhisattavas.
The Gupta Dynasty was much like the Zhou Dynasty in that
they were both made up of feudal regions with central government
What did the Mauryan Empire politically do that forced India into provinces?
It divided India into separate provinces ruled by governors for tax collection and law enforcement
The region of Southeast Asia first rose to prominence and prosperity because
of its intermediary role in the trade between southern and eastern Asia
The most likely explanation for the decline of Funan in the sixth century is
international trade route changed, bypassing Funan
Buddhism appealed to many common people because
it downplayed social caste and individuals
According to the document above, what was an unintended but inevitable effect of the certain of "Silk Road"?
Cultural interactions were faciliated between the Han and regions to their west
How did the Assyrians achieve success?
throught a deliberate policy of cruelty and terror tactics.(armed with iron weapons and horse back)
Bantu and what was important? (Bantu migration and effects)
-introduction of iron making
-building permanent homes
-absorbed other tribal groups
-introduction of agriculture and new crops( yams&bananas)
-introduced centralized governement
Hammurabi's Code
first writtien set of laws ("an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth")
Neolithic Revolution
shift from hunting/gathering to plant/animal cultivation starting in 8000 b.c.e
Confucianism
believed in the existence of gods and spirits but gave little place to them in their philosophical system. Argued that a morally concerned person should be interested in how he or she acted in the material world, what happens beyond one's physical life is less important
Mandate of Heaven
justification for imperial rule
Ninevah
capital city of the Assyrians
Why did the Mycenaeans decline?
-increased conquest, yet internal collapse
-destruction of trade routes
-political unrest (palaces destroyed, Linear B gone)
Bronze Age
the use of bronze and features urban civilization
Hinduism and Buddhism similarites
-reincarnation
-different paths to enlightenment
-suffering caused by desire
-practice meditation & different forms of yoga
How did the Roman Empire fall?
-frequent changes of rulers & nomadic invasions (Germanic Tribes)
-economic crisis: high cost of defense, currency devaluation, inflation, nomadic attacks (Vandals sack Rome), moved capital to Constantinople
Gupta Achievements
-math & astronomy
-invented "Arabic" numerals
concept of "zero"
Why did Buddhism appeal so much to people
Because Buddhism believed changes in thought processes and life styles brought enlightenment not one's caste.
Ying Yang
Ying: feminine, passive, darkness, cold, weak, Earth, moon
Yang: masculine, active, light, warmth, strong, heaven, sun
Janaism
-practiced nonviolence, and went to extremes in attempts not to kill any living thing
-some went naked & starved themselves to death

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