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Key Terms 7

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The Critical Period
the period between the end of the revolutionary war and the ratification of the constitution
Alexander Hamilton
calls for the Philadelphia convention of states with every delegate to revise the Articles of Confederation and see if the government should be expanded or not
Antifederalists
Opposed a strong central government, skeptical about undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution, insisted on Bill of Rights; included Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution, guaranteeing civil rights for American citizens as forced by Antifederalists, drafted by a group led by James Madison
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
Confederation Congress
issued the northwest ordinance of 1787
Constitutional Convention
In response to the Annapolis Convention's suggestion, Congress called for the states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation. Delegates came to the convention in May 1787, and drafted an entirely new framework that would give greater powers to the central government. This document became the Constitution.
Federalism
It was a belief in a strong and powerful central government. It had a strong influence for a couple of decades in the early country.
Anapolis Convention
1786, problem of control of commerce- call a convention. VERY low turnout shows state's disunity; calls a new convention to be held in Phil. to discuss repairing the AOC
Fiat Currency
Paper money backed only by the promise of the government to accept it in payment of taxes. It originated in Massachusetts after a military emergency in 1690. (Like Eagle Bucks)
George Washington
Virginian who was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and President of the Constitutional Convention. Later became the first President. Founding Father.
Great Compromise
larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives and the smaller states were appeased by equal representation in the Senate
Impeachment
mpeachment is to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Although there were enough votes in the House of Representatives, the Senate did not have enough. Since this attempt in 1804, there has been no serious attempt to impeach members of the Supreme Court.
James Madison
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
John Jay
Chief Justice of the United States; in 1794 George Washington sent him to negotiate a treaty with England
Limited Government
A basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights (natural rights) that government cannot take away.
Mississippi River
French controlled West of the River; Louisiana Purchase gave Americans control of the river
Shay's Rebellion
An uprising by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by a Revolutionary War captain against Boston creditors. It began in 1786 and lasted half a year, threatening the economic interests of the business elite and contributing to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
Northwest Ordinance of 1785
divided Northwest Territory into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Patrick Henry
Made a dramatic speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses in May 1765. "Virginia Resolves" were his resolutions for the colonies on taxes. No taxing unless by the Virginia House. "GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!"
Philadelphia
Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin; continental congress met here
Popular Sovereignty
notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. Seemingly a compromise, it was largely opposed by Northern abolitionists who feared it would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.
Ratification
ratification of the Constitution
Republicanism
the ideology of governing the nation as a republic, where the head of state is not appointed through hereditary means, but usually through an election , A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Robert Morris
Private bank made by Robert Morris that would hold gov't cash, lend money to gov't and issue currency. Was expected to turn a profit for Morris and shareholders, but it depended ultimately upon a secure income for the gov't
Roger Sherman
Proprosed the Great Compromise: granted each state one vote in the upper house and population in lower house
Specie Currency
issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
The Federalist
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
LAnd Ordinance of 1785
provided for the scientific surveying of the territory's lands and for a systematic subdivision of them. Land was to be subdivided according to a rectangular grid system. The basic unit of land grant was the township, which was a square area measuring six miles on each side. A township could then be subdivided into a number of rectangular parcels of individually owned land.
The New Jersey Plan
retained the essence of the existing system with its one-house legislature in which all states had equal representation, but which would have given Congress expanded powers to tax and to regulate commerce.
The Newburgh Conspiracy
A plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years., The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. Through the Newburgh Conspiracy, which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris, the army, whose pay was overdue, threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government.
The Wealth of Nations
advocated for the government to stay out of the economy. He called for laissez faire economics.
Townships
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Virginia Plan
resolutions proposed by James Madison concerning aspects of the system of government. It proposed a bicameral legislature, in which the house's members would be elected in proportion to state populations. The smaller states opposed the proposal, fearing they would lose influence to the larger states. The plan also supported the Separation of Powers.
William Paterson
offered the New Jersey plan which favored a one-house of Congress with equal representation for each state. It maintained much of the Articles of Confederation but strengthened the government's power to tax and regulate commerce.