Social Psychology Exam #2

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

The Four Components of Socialization
1) Agent
2) Process
3) Target
4) Outcome
Agent
Social Institutions, individuals, groups
Process
observational learning, instrumental conditioning, internalization
Target
The thing being socialized
Outcome
Gender Roles, moral development, cultural values
How does the Rose Petal Cottage commercial illustrate the four components of the socialization process?
Explain
Schemas
A mental structure we use to organize and simplify our knowledge of the world around us
Types of Schemas
Self-schemas
Group schemas
Person schemas
Role schemas
Event schemas
Learning (and Seeing) Color
Explain significance.
Attribution
The process that an observer uses to infer the causes of another's behavior.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency people have to immediately focus on the internal (or dispositional) causes of behavior and to discount external (or situational) factors.
The Three Biases in Attribution
1) Focus of attention bias
2) Actor-observer bias
3) Motivational bias
Focus of attention bias
What we focus our attention on affects attributions.
Actor-observer bias
Those "acting" have a different perception than those who are observing.
Motivational bias
We tend to interpret events in ways that confirm our schemas.
Three important aspects of a situation:
1) Frame
2) Identities
3) Appropriate behaviors
The definition of a situation must be ______ _____ for ________ _______
Agreed upon, Successful interaction
Our Three selves
1) Authentic self
2) Ideal self
3) Tactical self
Authentic self
Who we are
Ideal self
Who we want to be
Tactical self
Who we think others want us to be
Impression Management
A process by which individuals manipulate their public images in order to elicit certain desired reactions.
7 Self-Presentation Tactics
1) self-disclosure
2) managing appearances
3) ingratiation
4) aligning actions
5) supplication
6) altercasting
7) emotion mangement
Self-Disclosure
The process of revealing one's feelings and behavior to others. Usually reciprocal. Usually produces liking, but one can disclose too much.
Managing Appearances
Physical appearances (clothes, shaving, hairstyles). Props (glasses, books, cars)
Ingratiation
Attempts to increase a target person's liking of us.
• other enhancement
• opinion conformity
• playing dumb
• selective self-presentation
• self-enhancement or self-deprecation
Aligning Actions
Disclaimers: (a verbal assertion to ward off any negative implications of impending actions, i.e. "I'm not racist but...".
Accounts: explanations offered to mitigate responsibility after performing acts that threaten social identities (I only acted that way because I was starved)
Apologies.
Altercasting
Imposing roles and identities on others.
Supplication
Convincing someone that you're needy and deserving.
Emotion management
Attempts to change the intensity or quality of our feelings to bring them into line with the requirements of the occasion. (Suppression and evocation)
Face-work
When we try to maintain our own, and others', faces.
Three types of face-work
1) Avoidance Process
2) Corrective Process
3) Aggression (self-serving)
Avoidance Process
the avoidance of both potential face-threatening situations and people.
Corrective Process
to restore the desired expressive order and flow of events.
Aggression (self-serving)
...
Embarrassment
Uncomfortable feeling, mortification, awkward, exposed, or ashamed. Increased heart-rate and blushing.
stigma
Personal characteristics that others view as insurmountable handicaps preventing competent or morally trustworthy behavior
Three types of stigma
1) Abnormalities of the body
2) tribal identities
3) Blemishes of individual
Four components of Emotion
1) Situational cues
2) Physiological changes
3) Emotional labels
4) Expressive gestures
Sentiments
Enduring, tied to a social object
Moods
Enduring, across situations or contexts
Emotion Management
The evocation or suppression of emotions to fit normative emotional expectations
Emotion management strategies of medical students
Transforming the contact
Accentuating the positive (this is real medicine)
Using the patient (empathizing or blaming)
Avoiding Contact
Joking about it
Emotional Deviance
When an individual is unable to effectively manage his or her emotions, "experiences of displays of affect that differ in quality or degree from what is expected in a given situation.
Fashioned Gender Identity
Boy: Fix me (pointing to the unfasten zipper in the dress).
Girl: You're not a girl.
Other Girl: You're a boy.
Girl: Those are girl things.
Boy (hurriedly slips out of the dress and kicks off the shoes.)
Gang Related Gun Violence and the Self, Stretesky and Pogrebin
Related to issue of gun violence, the possession and use of guns among gang members is relatively important because, in addition to protecting gang members, guns are tools that aid in identity formation and impression management. As many of our subject narratives suggest, guns were often connected in some way to masculine attributes. Gang members reported to us that they could often use guns to project their reputation or reclaim respect.
Invisible Inequality
Concerted Cultivation vs. Natural Growth
Concerted Cultivation
A style of parenting that is marked by a parent's attempts to foster their child's talents by incorporating organized activities in their children's lives.
Natural Growth
Parents in the working class (and typically with lower incomes) engage their children in the accomplishment of natural growth. Children usually have more unstructured time and therefore create their own activities to occupy themselves. This environment does not prepare children to survive in settings that are very structured, such as schools.
Forming impressions of personalities
Central and peripheral qualities
When the light's on and nobody's home
Entrapment by category

Automatic Behavior

Acting from a single perspective

Decreasing prejudice by increasing discrimination
Entrapment by Category
A form of mindlessness. Guy is ready to pay another millions for a 4x6 panel of wood. The other doesn't even think about the door to his house that he could give the guy for millions. Because it's not a plank of wood it's a door
Automatic Behavior
Cashier asks customer to sign back of his credit card. He does, and then the cashier check his signature on the receipt with the newly signed credit card.
Acting form a single perspective
A test person asks for an ace bandage for damaged knee outside of pharmacy. People come back empty handed because they couldn't find ace bandages. The thing is anything would have done for the knee, but they looked only specifically for ace bandages.
Education and Causal Attribution
judgments about the causes of a social problem do not merely reflect various motivational recognitive biases but result from socialization in a particular culture
Regions and Region Behavior
Front region vs. back region
Front Region
The place where the performance is given
Back Region
A place relative to a given performance, when the impression fostered by the performance is knowingly contradicted as a matter of course.
Death as Theater
Regions in regard to funerals