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34 terms

Unit 10 Vocab

Ch. 12 Vocab
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Chemical Bond
A force that links atoms together and makes them act as a unit
Ionic Bond
Formed when a metal transfers electrons to a non metal, causing them to become oppositely charged ions, which are then attracted to each other
Ionic Compound
Any compound composed of cations and anions; also known as a salt
Empirical Formula
Shows the lowest ratio of ions in an ionic compound
Cation
An atom that has lost electrons and thus acquired a positive charge
Anion
An atom that has gained electrons and thus acquired a negative charge
Electrostatic Attraction
Force of attraction between oppositely charged particles
Unit Cell
The smallest repeating unit of an ionic compound
Hydrate
An ionic compound in which one or more water molecules is embedded in each unit cell
Crystal Lattice
The repeating pattern of alternating (+) and (-) ions
characteristic of ionic compounds
Covalent Bond
Formed when atoms share electrons
Molecule
A group of atoms joined by covalent bonds
Covalent Network Solid
A special type of covalent compound in which atoms are bound in a continuous network (e.g., diamond and graphite)
Electrolyte
A substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water
Nonelectrolyte
A substance that does not conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Molecular Formula
Shows the exact number of each type of atom present in one molecule of a substance
Structural Formula
Shows which atoms are bonded to which other atoms in a molecule
Lewis Dot Sructures
A type of structural formula that shows the how the valence electrons of two or more atoms interact
Single Bond
Results from one shared pair of electrons
Double Bond
Results from two shared pairs of electrons
Triple Bond
Results from three shared pairs of electrons
Bonding Pairs
Valence electrons that participate in covalent bonding
Lone Pairs
valence electrons that do not participate in covalent bonding
Electronegativity
The ability of an atom in a covalent bond to attract shared
electrons toward itself
Polarity
When one end of a bond or molecule has a slight (-) charge and the other a slight (+) charge; results from the clustering of e- at one end of a bond or molecule due to electronegativity differences between the atoms involved
Dipole
A polar molecule
Polar Covalent Bond
Type of bond in which electrons are shared unequally; the atoms involved have significantly differemt electronegativity values
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Type of bond in which electrons are shared equally; the atoms involved have the same or very similar electronegativity values
Metallic Bond
A type of bond in which valence electrons are free-moving and shared by all cations
Alloy
A homogenous mixture of metals; stronger and more durable than pure metals
Interstitial Alloy
An alloy in which small holes between atoms in a metallic crystal are filled w/smaller atoms (e.g., steel)
Substitutional Alloy
An alloy in which atoms of the original metal are replaced by other metal atoms of a similar size (e.g., brass, sterling silver)
Molecular Geometry
The 3-D shape of molecules
VSEPR
Theory that allows you to predict the shape and polarity of simple molecules