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65 terms

BJU US History Chapter 16

Flashcards for Chapter 16
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Post-War Era
The Gilded Age
robber barons
Men that shaped America's future more than anyone else
Vanderbilt
robber baron, started first in the ferry business, and then made his fortune in railroads
Carnegie
steel production
vertical integration
controlling every aspect of production
Rockefeller
America's first billionaire
horizontal integration
controlling all of one entire segment of an industry
trust
legal device by which a board of trustees is empowered to make decisions and control the operation of a whole group of companies
Morgan (J.P.)
leading investment banker in America, formed United States Steel Corporation
New South
the vision of many Southerners that the South would match the North in economic and industrial capacity
tobacco and textiles
the economic house of the New South was built on these two industries
(James Buchanan) Duke
popularized tobacco, formed American Tobacco Company
sewing machine
helped spawn a huge retail market for mass-produced clothing
(Alexander Graham) Bell
Scottish immigrant who invented the telephone, formed AT&T
(Thomas Alva) Edison
invented phonograph, projector, and incandescent light bulb
(Roscoe) Conkling
he controlled the New York Republican political machine, similar to Tammany Hall
Stalwarts
Republicans who favored high tariffs, hard money, and the spoils system
Half-Breeds
moderate Republicans who were dissatisfied with Grant, the Radical Republicans, and Reconstruction who tended to favor reform
(James A.) Garfield
Half-Breed nominated for president in 1880
(Chester A.) Arthur
Stalwart nominated for vice president in 1880
(Winfield S.) Hancock
Democratic presidential nominee in 1880
Pendleton Act
civil service reform act passed under Arthur's presidency
Civil Service Commission
established by the Pendleton Act, in charge of seeing that offices were filled by men who scored well on examinations
Mongrel Tariff
a tariff reduction that had many unfavorable amendments added to it
(James G.) Blaine
Republican presidential nominee in 1884
(Grover) Cleveland
Democratic presidential nominee in 1884, won election
Interstate Commerce Act
passed under Cleveland, this law stated that railroad rates should be fair, railroad companies should publish all rates and make financial reports, and provided for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
(Benjamin) Harrison
Republican presidential nominee in 1888, won election
"Billion Dollar Congress"
51st Congress, because for the first time in history, the annual budget exceeded a billion dollars
Sherman Antitrust Act
influential law which made monopolies illegal
McKinley Tariff
this unpopular law placed high duties on manufactured and agricultural imports
Panic of '93
4 years of the worst depression the country had ever seen
Knights of Labor
the earliest significant labor union formed in 1869 as a secret society
(Terrence V.) Powderly
under his leadership, the Knights of Labor emerged as an effective force
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
influential labor organization, instituted the eight-hour workday as a standard
(Samuel) Gompers
leader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Haymarket Riot
riot in which factory workers in Chicago, agitated by anarchists, went on strike- 7 policemen and 4 civilians died
Homestead Strike
strike in which Pittsburgh workers went on strike, resulting in fighting which killed 9 people
(Eugene V.) Debs
founder of the American Railway Union, leader of the Pullman Strike
Pullman Strike
strike in which Chicago workers striked unsuccessfully, then boycotted the company
injunction
a court order
socialism
advocates collective or government ownership of the means of production
Grange
organization founded to encourage social contacts and scientific methods of farming
Populist party
party whose major issue was currency policy
free silver
advocated by Populists, it would add silver to the standard for American currency
(William) McKinley
Republic presidential nominee in 1896, won election
(William Jennings) Bryan
Democratic presidential nominee in 1896, called "the Great Commoner"
urbanization
movement of the population to the cities
"New Immigration"
new immigrants to the United States, which primarily were from Southern and Eastern Europe, and from the Orient
"melting pot"
a place such as the United States where diverse racial and ethnic cultures blend to form a new and unified nation
(Charles) Darwin
wrote "The Origin of the Species", proponent of natural selection
Social Darwinism
the application of the evolutionary theory to social institutions, proposed by Herbert Spencer
Reform Darwinism
begun by Ward, this philosophy states that human progress is best achieved through cooperation and that the government should be an active agent for social change
(Mark) Twain
a realist, wrote "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" and "Life on the Mississippi"
realism
a type of writing which drew a picture of simple, ordinary life
naturalism
a new literary approach which emphasized man's helplessness and struggle with the world
(Stephen) Crane
a naturalist, wrote "Maggie: A Girl in the Streets" and "The Red Badge of Courage"
(Jack) London
a naturalist, who wrote "Call of the Wild"
(Horatio) Alger
wrote rags-to-riches tales such as "Luck and Pluck", "Bound to Rise", and "Tattered Tom"
materialism
the desire for worldly possessions and the belief that only they can bring true happiness
urban evangelism
the conducting of large, city-wide campaigns in huge auditoriums or large churches in major cities
(Dwight L.) Moody
leader of urban evangelism
(Ira) Sankey
Moody's song leader, helped popularize the gospel song
gospel song
a sacred tune that is less formal than a hymn and has a more popular, easily sung melody
(Sam) Jones
"The Moody of the South", urban evangelist in the South