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Flashcards for Chapter 16

Post-War Era

The Gilded Age

robber barons

Men that shaped America's future more than anyone else


robber baron, started first in the ferry business, and then made his fortune in railroads


steel production

vertical integration

controlling every aspect of production


America's first billionaire

horizontal integration

controlling all of one entire segment of an industry


legal device by which a board of trustees is empowered to make decisions and control the operation of a whole group of companies

Morgan (J.P.)

leading investment banker in America, formed United States Steel Corporation

New South

the vision of many Southerners that the South would match the North in economic and industrial capacity

tobacco and textiles

the economic house of the New South was built on these two industries

(James Buchanan) Duke

popularized tobacco, formed American Tobacco Company

sewing machine

helped spawn a huge retail market for mass-produced clothing

(Alexander Graham) Bell

Scottish immigrant who invented the telephone, formed AT&T

(Thomas Alva) Edison

invented phonograph, projector, and incandescent light bulb

(Roscoe) Conkling

he controlled the New York Republican political machine, similar to Tammany Hall


Republicans who favored high tariffs, hard money, and the spoils system


moderate Republicans who were dissatisfied with Grant, the Radical Republicans, and Reconstruction who tended to favor reform

(James A.) Garfield

Half-Breed nominated for president in 1880

(Chester A.) Arthur

Stalwart nominated for vice president in 1880

(Winfield S.) Hancock

Democratic presidential nominee in 1880

Pendleton Act

civil service reform act passed under Arthur's presidency

Civil Service Commission

established by the Pendleton Act, in charge of seeing that offices were filled by men who scored well on examinations

Mongrel Tariff

a tariff reduction that had many unfavorable amendments added to it

(James G.) Blaine

Republican presidential nominee in 1884

(Grover) Cleveland

Democratic presidential nominee in 1884, won election

Interstate Commerce Act

passed under Cleveland, this law stated that railroad rates should be fair, railroad companies should publish all rates and make financial reports, and provided for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

(Benjamin) Harrison

Republican presidential nominee in 1888, won election

"Billion Dollar Congress"

51st Congress, because for the first time in history, the annual budget exceeded a billion dollars

Sherman Antitrust Act

influential law which made monopolies illegal

McKinley Tariff

this unpopular law placed high duties on manufactured and agricultural imports

Panic of '93

4 years of the worst depression the country had ever seen

Knights of Labor

the earliest significant labor union formed in 1869 as a secret society

(Terrence V.) Powderly

under his leadership, the Knights of Labor emerged as an effective force

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

influential labor organization, instituted the eight-hour workday as a standard

(Samuel) Gompers

leader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Haymarket Riot

riot in which factory workers in Chicago, agitated by anarchists, went on strike- 7 policemen and 4 civilians died

Homestead Strike

strike in which Pittsburgh workers went on strike, resulting in fighting which killed 9 people

(Eugene V.) Debs

founder of the American Railway Union, leader of the Pullman Strike

Pullman Strike

strike in which Chicago workers striked unsuccessfully, then boycotted the company


a court order


advocates collective or government ownership of the means of production


organization founded to encourage social contacts and scientific methods of farming

Populist party

party whose major issue was currency policy

free silver

advocated by Populists, it would add silver to the standard for American currency

(William) McKinley

Republic presidential nominee in 1896, won election

(William Jennings) Bryan

Democratic presidential nominee in 1896, called "the Great Commoner"


movement of the population to the cities

"New Immigration"

new immigrants to the United States, which primarily were from Southern and Eastern Europe, and from the Orient

"melting pot"

a place such as the United States where diverse racial and ethnic cultures blend to form a new and unified nation

(Charles) Darwin

wrote "The Origin of the Species", proponent of natural selection

Social Darwinism

the application of the evolutionary theory to social institutions, proposed by Herbert Spencer

Reform Darwinism

begun by Ward, this philosophy states that human progress is best achieved through cooperation and that the government should be an active agent for social change

(Mark) Twain

a realist, wrote "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" and "Life on the Mississippi"


a type of writing which drew a picture of simple, ordinary life


a new literary approach which emphasized man's helplessness and struggle with the world

(Stephen) Crane

a naturalist, wrote "Maggie: A Girl in the Streets" and "The Red Badge of Courage"

(Jack) London

a naturalist, who wrote "Call of the Wild"

(Horatio) Alger

wrote rags-to-riches tales such as "Luck and Pluck", "Bound to Rise", and "Tattered Tom"


the desire for worldly possessions and the belief that only they can bring true happiness

urban evangelism

the conducting of large, city-wide campaigns in huge auditoriums or large churches in major cities

(Dwight L.) Moody

leader of urban evangelism

(Ira) Sankey

Moody's song leader, helped popularize the gospel song

gospel song

a sacred tune that is less formal than a hymn and has a more popular, easily sung melody

(Sam) Jones

"The Moody of the South", urban evangelist in the South

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