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robber baron, started first in the ferry business, and then made his fortune in railroads
legal device by which a board of trustees is empowered to make decisions and control the operation of a whole group of companies
the vision of many Southerners that the South would match the North in economic and industrial capacity
moderate Republicans who were dissatisfied with Grant, the Radical Republicans, and Reconstruction who tended to favor reform
Civil Service Commission
established by the Pendleton Act, in charge of seeing that offices were filled by men who scored well on examinations
Interstate Commerce Act
passed under Cleveland, this law stated that railroad rates should be fair, railroad companies should publish all rates and make financial reports, and provided for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
"Billion Dollar Congress"
51st Congress, because for the first time in history, the annual budget exceeded a billion dollars
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
influential labor organization, instituted the eight-hour workday as a standard
riot in which factory workers in Chicago, agitated by anarchists, went on strike- 7 policemen and 4 civilians died
strike in which Pittsburgh workers went on strike, resulting in fighting which killed 9 people
new immigrants to the United States, which primarily were from Southern and Eastern Europe, and from the Orient
a place such as the United States where diverse racial and ethnic cultures blend to form a new and unified nation
the application of the evolutionary theory to social institutions, proposed by Herbert Spencer
begun by Ward, this philosophy states that human progress is best achieved through cooperation and that the government should be an active agent for social change
wrote rags-to-riches tales such as "Luck and Pluck", "Bound to Rise", and "Tattered Tom"
the desire for worldly possessions and the belief that only they can bring true happiness
the conducting of large, city-wide campaigns in huge auditoriums or large churches in major cities
a sacred tune that is less formal than a hymn and has a more popular, easily sung melody
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