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34 terms

SA 9th Grade- Biology- Test on Genetics and Heredity

the passing of traits from parent to offspring on the genes of chromosomes
the study of heredity or how alleles affect generations of offspring
a gene form for each variation of a trait of an organism
Gregor Mendel
the "Father of Genetics"; studied how traits pass from one generation to the next; was an Austrian monk
pea plants
what Gregor Mendel conducted experiments on
organisms that always produce the same traits in it's offspring
the form of a trait that appears to mask another form of the same trait; symbolized by a capital letter
the form of a trait that appears least often in offspring; sybolized by lower case letter
a branch of science that determines the likelihood or chance of something happening
Punnett square
a tool that shows how genes can combine; predicts the results of genetic crosses
Reginald Punnett
developed the Punnett square
the genetic makeup of an organism; all of the possible alleles within the organism
an organism with two alleles for a trait that are the same or identical
an organism with two alleles for a trait that are different
the physical traits that show as a result of a particular genotype; traits that are expressed
traits are controlled by alleles on chromosomes, an allele may be dominant or recessive, Law of Segregation
Mendel's contributions to genetics
incomplete dominance
a condition that exists when both alleles for a trait are expressed producing a new phenotype ; neither are dominant over the other; there is a blend
both alleles are expressed equally; their is not a blend
multiple alleles
having more than two alleles that control a trait
polygenic inheritance
multiple genes that occur whena group of gene pairs act together to produce a single trait
any permanent change in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell; some can be harmful and result in genetic disorders such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis
sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis
homozygous recessive disorders; homozygous recessive- has the disease; heterozygous- carrier of the disease; caused by recessive alleles
sex chromosome
the twenty-third pair of chromosomes
sex-linked gene
an allele inherited on a sex chromosome (occur more often in males)
a tool for tracing a trait in a family
genetic engineering
experimental methoods for altering genes in offspring to produce desirable traits or eliminate undesirable traits
a map of the location of individual genes on every chromosome of an individual
made od DNA; located on chromosomes; inherited from an organism's parents (genotype); control the traits that are expressed (phenotype) in an organism; have different forms for a trait called alleles
male and female sex cells
what sickle-cells cannot release enough of
the disease in which blood does not clot properly and puts the affected person in danger of bleeding to death from even a small srape
an individual who has one allele for a disease but is not affected by it