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34 terms

SA 9th Grade- Biology- Test on Genetics and Heredity

STUDY
PLAY
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring on the genes of chromosomes
genetics
the study of heredity or how alleles affect generations of offspring
alleles
a gene form for each variation of a trait of an organism
Gregor Mendel
the "Father of Genetics"; studied how traits pass from one generation to the next; was an Austrian monk
pea plants
what Gregor Mendel conducted experiments on
purebreed
organisms that always produce the same traits in it's offspring
dominant
the form of a trait that appears to mask another form of the same trait; symbolized by a capital letter
recessive
the form of a trait that appears least often in offspring; sybolized by lower case letter
probability
a branch of science that determines the likelihood or chance of something happening
Punnett square
a tool that shows how genes can combine; predicts the results of genetic crosses
Reginald Punnett
developed the Punnett square
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism; all of the possible alleles within the organism
homozygous
an organism with two alleles for a trait that are the same or identical
heterozygous
an organism with two alleles for a trait that are different
phenotype
the physical traits that show as a result of a particular genotype; traits that are expressed
traits are controlled by alleles on chromosomes, an allele may be dominant or recessive, Law of Segregation
Mendel's contributions to genetics
incomplete dominance
a condition that exists when both alleles for a trait are expressed producing a new phenotype ; neither are dominant over the other; there is a blend
condominance
both alleles are expressed equally; their is not a blend
multiple alleles
having more than two alleles that control a trait
polygenic inheritance
multiple genes that occur whena group of gene pairs act together to produce a single trait
mutation
any permanent change in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell; some can be harmful and result in genetic disorders such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis
sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis
homozygous recessive disorders; homozygous recessive- has the disease; heterozygous- carrier of the disease; caused by recessive alleles
sex chromosome
the twenty-third pair of chromosomes
XX
females
XY
males
sex-linked gene
an allele inherited on a sex chromosome (occur more often in males)
pedigree
a tool for tracing a trait in a family
genetic engineering
experimental methoods for altering genes in offspring to produce desirable traits or eliminate undesirable traits
genome
a map of the location of individual genes on every chromosome of an individual
genes
made od DNA; located on chromosomes; inherited from an organism's parents (genotype); control the traits that are expressed (phenotype) in an organism; have different forms for a trait called alleles
gametes
male and female sex cells
oxygen
what sickle-cells cannot release enough of
hemophilia
the disease in which blood does not clot properly and puts the affected person in danger of bleeding to death from even a small srape
carrier
an individual who has one allele for a disease but is not affected by it