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the passing of traits from parent to offspring on the genes of chromosomes


the study of heredity or how alleles affect generations of offspring


a gene form for each variation of a trait of an organism

Gregor Mendel

the "Father of Genetics"; studied how traits pass from one generation to the next; was an Austrian monk

pea plants

what Gregor Mendel conducted experiments on


organisms that always produce the same traits in it's offspring


the form of a trait that appears to mask another form of the same trait; symbolized by a capital letter


the form of a trait that appears least often in offspring; sybolized by lower case letter


a branch of science that determines the likelihood or chance of something happening

Punnett square

a tool that shows how genes can combine; predicts the results of genetic crosses

Reginald Punnett

developed the Punnett square


the genetic makeup of an organism; all of the possible alleles within the organism


an organism with two alleles for a trait that are the same or identical


an organism with two alleles for a trait that are different


the physical traits that show as a result of a particular genotype; traits that are expressed

traits are controlled by alleles on chromosomes, an allele may be dominant or recessive, Law of Segregation

Mendel's contributions to genetics

incomplete dominance

a condition that exists when both alleles for a trait are expressed producing a new phenotype ; neither are dominant over the other; there is a blend


both alleles are expressed equally; their is not a blend

multiple alleles

having more than two alleles that control a trait

polygenic inheritance

multiple genes that occur whena group of gene pairs act together to produce a single trait


any permanent change in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell; some can be harmful and result in genetic disorders such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis

sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis

homozygous recessive disorders; homozygous recessive- has the disease; heterozygous- carrier of the disease; caused by recessive alleles

sex chromosome

the twenty-third pair of chromosomes



sex-linked gene

an allele inherited on a sex chromosome (occur more often in males)


a tool for tracing a trait in a family

genetic engineering

experimental methoods for altering genes in offspring to produce desirable traits or eliminate undesirable traits


a map of the location of individual genes on every chromosome of an individual


made od DNA; located on chromosomes; inherited from an organism's parents (genotype); control the traits that are expressed (phenotype) in an organism; have different forms for a trait called alleles


male and female sex cells


what sickle-cells cannot release enough of


the disease in which blood does not clot properly and puts the affected person in danger of bleeding to death from even a small srape


an individual who has one allele for a disease but is not affected by it

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