IB Geography Core - Patterns and Change
This is a list of exactly all terms and definitions from the IB geography core syllabus. (Patterns and Change)
Terms in this set (232)
The spread of a phenomenon over time and space
The largest population that the resources of a given environment can support
The tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement level fertility has been achieved, because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years. This situation is due to past high fertility rates, which results in a large number of young people.
The scientific study of human populations
The historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population
The number of births per 1000 population in a given year. It is only a very broad indicator, as it does not take in account the age and gender distribution of the population.
Crude Birth Rate
The number of deaths per 1000 population in a given year. Again it is only a broad indicator as it is heavily influenced by the age structure of the population.
Crude Death Rate
The difference between the birth rate and the death rate
Rate of Natural Change
An official periodic count of a population including such information as age, gender, occupation and ethnic origin.
When the number of births is lower than the number of deaths
The migration of people into a country from one or a number of other countries
The number of people from a country to one or a number of other countries.
The difference between immigration and emigration for a particular country.
The number of live births per 1000 women aged 15-49 years in a given year.
The average number of children that would be born alive to a woman (or a group of women) during her lifetime, if she were to pass through her child-bearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year
Total Fertility Rate
The level at which each generation has just enough children to replace themselves in the population. Although the level varies from different populations, a total fertility rate of 2.12 children is usually considered as replacement level.
Replacement Level Fertility
The number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births in a given year
Infant Mortality Rate
The number of deaths of children 5 years of age per 1000 live births in a given year
Child Mortality Rate
(at birth) the average number of years a person may expect to live when born, assuming past trends continue
The composition of a population, the most important elements of which age and sex.
A bar chart, arranged vertically, that show the distribution of a population by age and gender.
The number of males per 100 females in a population
The prediction of future populations based on the present age-gender structure, and with present rates of fertility, mortality and migration.
The ration of the number of people under 15 and over 64 years to those 15-64 years of age.
The ratio of the number of people 0-14 to those 15-64 years of age
Youth Dependency Ratio
The ratio of the number of people aged 65 and over to those aged 15-64 years
Elderly Dependency Ratio
The proportion of people 65 years old and over the total population
The age at which half the population is younger and half is older
A rise in the median age of a population which occurs when fertility declines while life expectancy remains constant or increases
When a government has stated aim on an aspect of its entire population and it undertakes measures to achieve that aim.
A population policy that aims to encourage more births through the use of incentives
A population policy designed to limit fertility through the use both of incentives and deterrents
The movement of people across a specified boundary, national or international, to establish a new permanent place of residence lasting more than one year.
When the individual or household has a free choice about whether to move or not
Forced migration occurs when the individual or household has little or no choice to move or not
Negative conditions at the point of origin, which encourage of force people to move.
Positive conditions at the point of destination which encourages people to move
Migration within the same country
Jobs in the formal sector are known to the government department that is responsible for taxation, and to other government offices. Such jobs generally provide better pay and much greater security than jobs in the informal sector.
The part of the economy operating outside the official recognition. Employment is generally low-paid and often temporary and/or part-time in nature.
A person who has been forced to leave home and country because of "a well-founded fear of persecution" on account of race, religion, social group or political opinion
As for a refugee, people who are forced to leave their home, but in this case they remain in the same country
Internally Displaced People
Money sent back by migrants to their family in the home community
The dispersal of people from their original home community
Where an increase in the money supply in a region sets off an upward spiral of development as this money circulates in the economy.
According to the World Health Organization, gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
The rules for how people should act in a given group or society. These rules are often different for men and women. Any behavior that is outside these norms is considered abnormal
The total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values and knowledge that constitutes the shared base of social action
(with regard to gender) the relative position or standing of men and women in a society
The female unemployment rate as a percentage of the male unemployment rate.
Unemployment Gender Ratio
To increase incomes of the poorest people at rates above the national average.
The use of resources to improve the quality of life in a country.
The total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e. its GDP), together with it's income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries.
Gross National Income (GNI)
The GNI of a country divided by its population.
Gross National Income Per Capita
Here the GNI of a country is converted into US dollars on the basis of how the value of the currency compares with that of the other countries.
GNI at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
The difference in income and the quality of life in general between the richest and the poorest countries in the world.
A measure of development, which combines three important aspects of human well-being: life expectancy, education and income.
Human Development Index (HDI)
The poorest and weakest economies in the developing world as identified by UNCTAD.
Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
Countries that have undergone rapid and successful industrialization since the 1960s.
Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs)
The number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births
Infant Mortality Rate
The gradual process of acquiring knowledge, understanding and skills.
The percentage of the adult population with basic reading and writing skills
Adult Literacy Rate
Development that seeks to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future generations.
The condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function.
The forces of being pushed to the edge of economic activity, of being largely left out of positive economic trends.
A statistical technique used to show the extent of income inequality in a country. With values between 0 and 1, a low value indicates a more equal income distribution while a high value means more unequal income distribution.
The process whereby a significant increase in the economic growth can lead to even more growth as money circulates in the economy.
The most highly developed region in a country with advanced systems of infrastructure and high levels of investment resulting in high average income.
Economic Core Region
The parts of a country outside the economic core region. The level of economic development in the periphery is significantly below that or the core.
A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
The gradual shift of global poverty from rural to urban areas with increasing urbanization
Urbanization of Poverty
People descending from the original ethnic groups to populate a country. Other ethnic groups migrating to that country at a later period of time may come to dominate the indigenous population in various ways.
The sale of state-owned assets to the private sector.
A deterministic approach based on the economic history of a number of developed countries. Distinct economic and social changes are required for a country to move from one stage to another
Blames the relative underdevelopment of the developing world, first through colonialism and then by the various elements of neocolonialism
Based on the history of the capitalist world economy. Countries fall into three economic levels, and can move from one level to another if their contribution to the world economy changes.
World System Theory
The average number of years that a newborn baby is expected to live if the age-specific mortality rates effective at the year of birth apply throughout their lifetime.
Life Expectancy at Birth
The most severe state of poverty with an inability to meet basic needs. It is now defined as living on less than 1.25 dollars a day.
Girls' school enrolment in relation to boys (girls per 100 boys)
Gender Gap in Education
The annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births
Maternal Mortality Rate
The underlying cause of AIDS is infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Overseas investments in physical capital by transnational operations
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
National or international private organizations, which are distinct from governmental or intergovernmental agencies.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
When a country decides to take part, or all, of one or a number of natural resources under state ownership.
The price of its imports, and changes that take place over time
Terms of trade
Countries that rely on one or a small range of primary products for most of their exports
Primary Product Dependent
When the value of a country's exports is less than the value of its imports
When producers of food, and some nonfood products, in developing countries receive a fair deal when they are selling their products.
The giving of resources (money, food, goods, technology etc.) by one country or organization to another poorer country. The objective is to improve the economy and quality of life in the poorer country.
AID supplied by a donor country whereby the level of technology and the skills required servicing it are properly suited to the conditions in the receiving country.
Tiny loans and financial services to help the poor, mostly women, start businesses and escape poverty.
Forms of business that seek to profit from investments that generate social improvements and serve a broader human development purpose.
Long-term sustained change in the average global climate
The property of the Earth's atmosphere by which long wavelength heat rays from the Earth's surface are trapped or reflected back by the atmosphere.
Natural Greenhouse Effect
This results from human activities which increases the concentration of naturally occurring greenhouse gases and leads to global warming and climate change.
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
The increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air in the 20th and early 21st centuries and it's projected continuation
The point at which the damage caused to global systems by climate change becomes irreversible
The heat energy from the sun consisting of the visible spectrum together with ultraviolet and infrared rays
The balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation
The amount of solar energy received per unit are, per unit time on a surface at right-angles to the sun's beam at the edge of the Earth's atmosphere
The heat energy that causes a change in temperature of a substance but does not contribute to a change in state
The transfer of heat by contact
The transfer of heat by the movement of a gas or a liquid.
The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as water vapor condensing into water droplets
The change in state from a liquid into a vapor
The change in state from a gas to a liquid
The warming of the subsurface of the Earth
The proportion of solar radiation that is reflected by a particular body or surface
Processes both outside and within the atmosphere that can force changes in climate
Radioactive forcing caused by changes in incoming solar radiation
A worldwide decline of the intensity of the sunlight reaching the Erath's surface, caused by particulate air pollution and natural events, for example volcanic ash.
An increasing amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface caused by an intensification of solar radiation
A thick layer of ice covering extensive regions of the world, notably Antarctica and Greenland.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere
Human produced ozone, a result of air pollution
When an increase of one phenomenon results in an increase in another.
A prolonged period of extensively hot weather.
As sea and ocean temperature increase, the water molecules near the surface move further apart, so that water volume increases and the sea level rises.
Where significant measures have been taken to reduce carbon emissions in all sectors of the economy.
Energy produced close to the point of consumption
The physical loss (erosion) and the reduction in quality in topsoil associated with nutrient decline and contamination
The vertical variations that occur in the characteristics of soil from the surface of the underlying rock.
A mathematical model used to describe soil erosion process
Universal Soil Loss Equation
The process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else, especially by agricultural system
The grazing of natural pastures at stocking intensities above the livestock carrying capacity
The change in the chemical composition of soil, which may trigger the circulation of toxic metals.
The condition in which the salt content of soil accumulates over time to above normal levels; containing high salt concentration evaporates from fields irrigated with standing water
Soil particles that are closely bound together are called peds or aggregates
The gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
A severe windstorm that sweeps clouds of dust across an extensive area, especially in an arid region
The capacity of soil to absorb contamination
Soil Buffering Capacity
Involves using the plants grown on a farm to "harvest" carbon from the atmosphere and return it to the soil
The shape and arrangement of aggregates give soils a characteristic structure, e.g. blocky, platy or prismatic
Crops that do not die off once harvested (annual crops), existing for years before reseeding may be required.
Planting seeds or trees to make a forest on land that has not been a forest recently, or which has never been a forest.
Re-establishing a forest after its removal
Agricultural systems emphasizing biological relationships and natural current levels of farm production to continue indefinitely
Water found below the surface which is not combined chemically with any minerals present
A permeable rock that will hold water permit its passage
A place where water supply is below 1700 cubic meters per person per year.
A place where water supply falls below 1000 cubic meters per person a year
That part of total precipitation that is absorbed by soil and plants, then released back into the air.
Precipitation that collects in rivers, lakes, and wetlands as groundwater. It is available for human use before it evaporates or reaches the ocean.
Water that is free from impurities, pollution and bacteria, and is thus safe to drink
The combined process of evaporation, sublimation and transpiration of the water from the Earth's surface into the atmosphere.
When physical access to water is limited.
Physical Water Scarcity
When a population does not have the necessary monetary means to utilize an adequate source of water.
Economic Water Scarcity
Water that has already been used for one purpose, but can possibly be reused for another purpose.
The top of the water-saturated part of a permeable rock. During periods of very high rainfall the water table may extend into the soil and possibly reach the surface of the ground.
The amount of water is used to produce food or any other item is thus essentially "embedded" in the item
A person's water footprint is the volume of fresh water the individual uses directly and in the production of the goods and services that person consumes
The conversion of salt water into fresh water by the extraction of dissolved solids.
The biodiversity of the plant and animal life in a particular habitat or in the world as a whole
A dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.
The living components of an ecosystem such as plants
The non-living components of an ecosystem such as water and soil
A state in which species are restricted to a single region
Area with a particularly high level of biodiversity
A rainforest found near the equator, typically characterized by high temperature and rainfall, poor soil, and a high diversity of plant and animal species.
A naturally occurring organic community of plants and animals
All of the streams and channels draining a river basin comprising a main river and its tributaries
A major soil type of the humid and high temperature tropics with a shallow A horizon but a thick B horizon comprising clay, sand and sesquioxides of iron and aluminum which, respectively, endow it with a red or yellow color. Much of the silica has been leached from latosols, and they tend to be low fertility.
That part of the rainforest which grows near the rivers on land that is flooded for at least part of the year.
An environmental reservoir that absorbs and stores more carbon that it releases, thereby offsetting greenhouse gas emissions
The re-establishment of organisms into habitats that they previously occupied
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
The scenario for future patterns of production and consumption which assumes that there will be no major changes in attitudes and priorities
New Technologies that aim to conserve the natural environment and resources.
The environmental impact caused by an individual tourist on holiday in a particular destination
A specialized form of tourism where people experience relatively untouched natural environments such as coral reefs, tropical forests and remote mountain areas, and ensure that their presence does not damage these environments.
A document required by law detailing all the impacts on the environment of a project above a certain size
Environmental Impact Assessment
Development schemes that focus on the reduction of poverty and the narrowing of the income gap between poor people and population as a whole. Environmental sustainability has become central to such approaches in recent years
Legally recognized common property resource management organization in Namibia's communal land
Expanding effective programmes to reach larger numbers of people in broader geographical area.
A sustainable indicator, which expresses the relationship between population and the natural environment. It sums the use of natural resources by a country's population
The capacity of an area or ecosystem to generate an ongoing supply of resources and to absorb its waste
One global hectare is equivalent to one hectare of biologically productive space with world average productivity
The total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product
Occurs when humanity's demand on nature exceeds the biosphere's supply, or regenerative capacity
Any aspect of the environment that can be used to meet human needs
Are resources that do not need regeneration, such as solar power
Flow Renewable Resources
The consumption of non-renewable, finite resources which will eventually lead to their exhaustion
The one that achieves a given aim in the most satisfactory way.
The level of population which, through the production of goods and services, provides the highest average standard of living.
When there are too few people in an area to use the resources available efficiently
When there are too many people in an area relative to the resources and the level of technology available
The level of population growth that best utilizes the resources and technology available. Improvements in the resource situation or/and technology are paralleled by more rapid population growth.
Optimum Rhythm of Growth
When population per unit area exceeds the carrying capacity.
Also Malthusians; the pessimistic lobby who fear that population growth will outstrip resources leading to the consequences predicted by Thomas Malthus.
Also known as resources optimists; the optimists who argue that either population growth slow well before the limits of resources are reached or that the ingenuity of humankind will solve resource problems when they arise.
The introduction of high-yielding seeds and modern agricultural techniques to developing countries.
Quantities of oil that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions
Proved Oil Reserves
The reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year. The result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that level
Reserves-To-Production (R/P) Ratio
A significant interruption to supply due to an environmental, economic or political event.
The current members are: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela.
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
The year in which the word or an individual oil-producing country reaches its highest level of production, with production declining thereafter
Peak Oil Production
Political relations among nations, particularly relating to claims and disputes pertaining to borders, territories and resources
A serious shortage of energy which interrupts domestic supplies and has an impact on all sectors of the economy
The USA's reserve supply of oil, which should last for about three months in the event of severe interruptions to imported oil
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
Supply routs between energy producers and consumers which may be pipelines, shipping routes or electricity cables
A document required by law detailing all the impacts on the environment of an energy or other project above a certain size
Environmental Impact Assessment
Also known as tar sends or extra heavy oil: naturally occurring mixtures of sand or clay and water which form an extremely dense and viscous form of petroleum called bitumen
When a country decides to place part (or all) of one or a number of natural resources (e.g. oil and gas) under state ownership.
A process that convers solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation
Power plant processes that both increase the efficiency of coal-burning and significantly reduce emissions
Clean Coal Technology
Natural gas that is more difficult to access and therefore more expensive to extract than "conventional" reserves
Unconventional Natural Gas
A nuclear reactor in which the chain reaction is maintained by fast neutrons. It is capable of producing more fissionable material than it consumes
Replacing the first-generation wind turbines with modern multi-megawatt turbines which give a much better performance
Fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agri-crop materials such as oilseeds, wheat, corn and sugar
The natural heat found in the Earth's crust in the form of steam, not water and hot rock.
The rate at which temperature rises as depth below the surface increases
Solar panels that convert sunlight directly into electricity.
management of the human use of natural resources to provide the maximum benefit to current generations while maintaining capacity to meet the needs of future generations
Conservation of Resources
The concentration of used or waste materials, their reprocessing, and their subsequent use in place of new materials.
This involves extending the life of a product beyond what was the norm in the past, or putting a product into a new use and extending it's life in this way
Involving agreement between countries to take only a predetermined amount of a resource. Quotas may change on an annual or longer time period basis
Very much a last resort management strategy when demand is massively out of proportion to supply. For example, individuals might only be allowed a very small amount of fuel and food per week.
Financial aid supplied by the government to an industry for reasons of public welfare, the balance of payments etc.
Areas where rates of recycling are well below the national or regional average.
A level of fishing resulting in the depletion of the fish stock.
The idea that common ownership of a resource leads to over-exploitation as some nations will always want to take more than other nations see as their fair share.
Tragedy of the Commons
The maximum quantity of fish that can be caught each year
Total Allowable Catch
A cite which refuse is buried under layers of earth
A waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "Thermal Treatment"
A system of environmental responsibility whereby producers take back a product, recycling it as far as possible, after the customer has finished with it
The use of common and thus less valuable resources. An example of this is preplacing copper by aluminum in the manufacture of a variety of products
A permit that allows an organization to emit a specified amount of greenhouse gasses; also called an emission permit.
A company that does not use up the level of emissions is entitled to, can sell the remainder of its entitlement to another company that pollutes above its entitlement.
Energy produced close to the point of consumption
Generators producing electricity with an output less than 50KW.
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