British practice of allowing American colonists to govern themselves freely; ended after French and Indian War with numerous taxations and laws.
Franklin's Albany Plan
Plan of defense for colonies from Indian attacks during French and Indian War; proposed one central defense system for the colonies; ultimately did not get approved.
French and Indian War
War fought over territorial expansion into Ohio Valley and Plains territories and ability to trade in these regions; French and Indians fought against British and American colonists; lasted from 1754 to 1763.
Group of several Indian tribes that formed defensive alliance; traded with French but especially British while avoiding close relations with both groups; sided with British in French and Indian War.
Region that was disputed by British, French and Indians; Indian tribes lived in the valley while France claimed it as territory and English settlement was expanding into it; tension eventually caused war to begin.
French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
Frontiersmen in western Pennsylvania that feared surrounding Indian tribes; marched to Philadelphia demanding tax relief and government funds to protect them from Indians; eventually achieved goals.
Stamp Act Crisis
Tax on stamps and printed materials in colonies to pay for keeping troops there and paying off war debts angered many colonists because of taxation without representation and led to protesting and violence; often by the Sons of Liberty.
Patrick Henry, the "Virginia Resolves"
Resolutions stated by Henry saying that Americans had same rights as English, including right to be taxed only when represented; therefore, Parliament had no right to tax colonists and anybody thinking otherwise was an enemy to the colonies.
The Stamp Act Congress
Meeting which nine of the thirteen colonies held in Philadelphia in 1765 to discuss the Stamp Act; claimed that admiralty courts were abusive, colonists had same rights as Englishmen, and Parliament could not tax the colonists due to lack of representation.
Quartering Act of 1765
Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties..
Taxes on various goods imported to the colonies from England-- lead, paper, paint, and tea.
Internal and external taxation
Internal taxations were taxations on personal goods and property, while external taxations dealt with taxing goods that were being imported (Townshend Acts).
In 1770, a group of Boston colonists began throwing rocks and snowballs at British soldiers; scuffling ensued and the panicking soldiers fired, killing five people; dramatized by resistance leaders.
Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
Women in resistance activities
Women led efforts to boycott tea after Tea Act, wrote anti-British pieces of literature, and created Daughters of Liberty to protest British actions.
Boston Tea Party
In 1773, group of colonists dressed as Indians boarded three British tea chips and dumped tea chests into the Boston harbor to protest Tea Act.
Coercive Act (Intolerable Acts)
Applied only to Massachusetts to punish them for Boston Tea Party; closed Boston's port, reduced powers of self-government, allowed royal officers to be tried in England or other colonies, and provided for quartering of British troops in empty houses or barns.
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
First Continental Congress
Held in 1754 in response to Coercive Acts; resulted in agreement to hold second meeting and publish list of rights and grievances.
Drafted by representatives of Boston area and approved by First Continental Congress; more radical statements in response to Coercive Acts; claimed they were no longer subject to British rule because they had been violated.
Representation: virtual vs. direct
Virtual taxation involves officials being elected by the people to represent them, whereas direct taxation means that every person can represent themselves directly in the government.
Nature of sovereignty
Americans believed that powers should be divided between leading governing force and smaller forces; British believed all governing power should be under one single leader and the Parliament.
Commander of British forces in America during French and Indian War; failed to retake site of Fort Necessity in 1775 and was then killed in ambush.
English secretary of state who brought war effort under British control; forced colonists to enlist, and seized supplies from colonists, but later relaxed these policies to ease tension.
Battle of Quebec
Dramatic British victory in which James Wolfe and his army attacked the city by surprise at night in 1759.
Peace of Paris, 1763
Treaty ending French and Indian War; France ceded territories in India and islands, along with all North American territory, to Spain and Britain.
Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation forbidding settlers to advance beyond a line drawn along Appalachian Mountains; meant to limit conflicts with Indian tribes over land.
Sugar Act (1764)
Tax on sugar that was meant to raise revenue and halt illegal sugar trade; harmed colonial economy during time of depression; established admiralty courts to try smugglers.
Taxation: "Virtual and direct"
Direct taxation taxes an individual and their property, while virtual taxes are paid indirectly; such as taxes on goods and activities.
Colonial radical who was very effective in creating public outrage at Boston Massacre; argued that England was sinful and corrupt and that British rule was oppressive.
Committee of Correspondence
Proposed by Adams in 1772; meant to publicize grievances against England throughout Massachusetts; led other colonies to create their own similar groups.