H446-1: Unit 1.2 - Software and Software Development
Terms in this set (60)
A Word Processor, Spreadsheet package and web browsers are a type of...?
Programs that perform specific user tasks such as word processing, database management, or accounting
We tend to categorise software according to it's...?
A relatively small program that are usually used for the upkeep of a system.
Anti-Virus programs are an example of...?
Disk Defragmentation programs are examples of...?
System software that acts as a "go-between", allowing computer hardware and other software to communicate with each other
Software that controls the computer hardware and acts as a bridge between applications and hardware
The software that runs on a computer that is responsible for file management, disks, peripherals, and the general operation of the computer system.
Multi-Tasking Operating System
Due to the ability of CPU's to carry out billions of processes a second, this type of OS gives the illusion of running several program at once.
Multi-Tasking Operating System
A type of operating system which allows more than one program to run at the same time
Multi-User Operating System
Distinguishes and allows multiple users to interact with the system at the same time while identifying processes and resources belonging to multiple users
Distributed Operating System
This type of OS can control and co-ordinate multiple computers to work on a single task using their combined processing power.
Embedded Operating System
This type of OS can be found on devices such as printers, ATM's and Cars. Usually only has one job and is often designed for specific hardware in mind.
Real-time Operating System
An OS intended for real time applications, almost always used in embedded systems and needs to give a response is a set amount of time, every time. Inputs are processed in a timely manner so that the output can affect the source of inputs.
Helps manage the system resources, including memory management and scheduling. All Applications use this to send and receive data to and from devices which lies below the operating system.
Key job of the operating system. Allows programs to be stored safely and efficiently. Restricts each program to accessing and amending it own area of data.
Managing all the computer hardware including the CPU, memory, disk drives, keyboard, monitor, printer and other peripheral devices.
GUI (graphical User Interface)
Enables users to perform tasks such as running application software, changing settings on the computer, downloading and installing new software etc.
Splits memory and/or programs into logical blocks containing modules or routines.
Process of splitting memory and/or programs up into blocks of the same physical size.
If a program exceeds its allocated space, the operating system uses an area of the hard disk to simulate random access memory, store parts of programs or data files until they are needed.
Hard drive that is constantly being accessed due to lack of available system memory. When system memory runs low, a Windows system will utilize hard disk space as "virtual" memory, thus causing an unusual amount of hard drive access.
A CPU scheduling algorithm in which each process is given a small amount of time to use the CPU before being forced to wait until its turn comes around again.
First Come First Served
A priority-based CPU scheduling algorithm that services the first request to arrive.
Shortest Job First
A type of scheduling algorithm where the queue is sorted by expected execution time. New jobs are added accordingly to the queue.
Shortest Remaining Time
Pre-emptive version of shortest job first. If a new job requires less time than the job that is currently running, then the currently running job is terminated so that the shorter job can run. Long jobs may not reach the front of the queue
Multi-Level feedback Queues
A scheduling algorithm where there are a number of different queues, with differing importance levels. A job may start in the high priority queue, but then if it doesn't complete in a set time, it might be moved into a different level. The bottom level is a round-robin based queue to ensure all tasks are completed eventually.
A signal from a software program, hardware device or internal clock to the CPU.
Interrupt Service Routines
A section of code that the CPU executes automatically as a result of acting on a interrupt.
Interrupts are dealt with based on this.
Small programs stored on the hard drive that tell the computer how to communicate with a specific hardware device. OS specific.
Emulated computer environment that simulates hardware and can be used for running OS's separate from the physical (host) computer. Replicates the functionality of a physical machine.
Usually stored on flash memory so that it can be updated.Also allows settings such as boot order of disks to be changed and saved by the user.
Open Source Software
Software that results from the voluntary collaboration of developers who create programs that they distribute free to others. The source code is available for anyone to use, copy, and distribute free of charge.
Closed Source Software
Software in which the source code is not available and is usually quite costly. Usually refered to a Proprietary software.
What was used to represent opcodes?
What code is written in Mnemonics?
A program that converts assembly language into object code.
Assembly language is made up of Mnemonics and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
What was the first widely-available high-level programming language?
High level programming languages need to be translated to be used by a CPU. How many types of high level translators are there?
Converts a program written in a higher level language into a lower level language and executes it, beginning execution before converting the entire program.
A highly specialized piece of software that takes a programming language understandable by humans and converts it into a language that computers can understand.
The machine language statements that have been translated from the source code.
Contains instructions written by a programmer specifying the actions to be performed by computer software
a small program to complete a specific task, packaged as a unit.
a type of subroutine which can output more than one value.
a type of subroutine which can only output one value.
the simplest part of programming logic. For example, "if doughnuts > 5"
data which is passed from the main program to a subroutine.
where a subroutine calls itself.
A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system. Includes the OS, utility programs, libraries and programming language translators.
A system that uses software to make a copy of files and data on a remote drive or server. It assumes there will be a hardware failure so the instillation of such software makes the network immune to the problems associated by such a hardware failure.
The computer regularly checks - typically daily- for updates from the OS publisher and from the makers of any software installed on the PC.
Reduces size of files e.g. before transmission or to reduce file size for archiving purposes or to reduce amount of storage taken up.
Software that has many features the majority of users will want or need.
Software that is designed to perform one specific task, e.g. web browser, photo editor, payroll or fingerprint scaning systems.
General purpose software that is produced first and then made available for customers to buy.
Software created especially for a particular user. Commissioned where appropriate software may not exist or existing software may not do exactly what the client wants.