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the land mass formed by the continents of Europe and Asia


the configuration of a surface of the earth and the relations among its man-made and natural features


a large mountain system in south-central Europe


a group of religous people that live together in a community


A government based upon the relation between a lord who provided land and protection and a vassal who pledged military and other services in return.


production, distribution and use of goods and services, and thier value or worth.


the office, or position, of pope as head of the Catholic Church


King or Queen who was the supreme ruler

Magna Carta

This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights


representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large


1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid the Byzantines under assault by Muslim empires; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade


a large sea between Southern Europe and Northern Africa

Bubonic Plague

1/3 of all Europe's population died, disease spread by rats, brought by sailors to Crimea, work shortage, wages for skilled laborers soared; Black Death

Black Death

The bubonic plague which killed 1/3 of Europe's population; caused a person's skin to turn black

natural law

a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society

Thomas Aquinas

influential scholastic thinker (1225-1274) wrote Summa Theologica, recognized faith and reason as overlapping realms of knowledge


The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.

Iberian Peninsula

the southwest tip of Europe where the modern nations of Spain and Portugsl are located

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