all of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it doesn't
function independently of the endocrine system.
Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at the same time.
Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?
What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?
activation of mRNA, which increases protein synthesis in the cel
After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?
acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
Which hormone's receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?
What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?
chaperone proteins (chaperonins)
What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?
water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?
Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?
tyrosine kinase receptors
Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?
activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAMP
Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?
Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?
Which of these hormones is not derived from an amino acid?
Hormones known as "catecholamines" are
derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
A kinase is an enzyme that performs
Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they
are produced by the suprarenal medulla
Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone
When adenyl cyclase is activated,
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed
All target cells have
If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
loss of ADH secretion
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
The main action of antidiuretic hormone is:
increased water conservation by kidneys
Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
The term used to describe excess production of urine is
After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is
Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?
elevated heart rate, elevated oxygen utilization, elevated body temperature
Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?
The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.
Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
cretinism, high blood levels of TSH, hypothyroidism, myxedema
Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
Cushing disease results from an excess of
The suprarenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose
Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are:
Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
low blood glucose
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces
Type II diabetes is characterized by:
a lack of response by target cells to insulin
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system.
Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.
During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is
mobilization of energy reserves.
The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is ________.