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a direct vote by citizens on a policy change proposed by fellow citizens or organized groups outside the government. Getting a question on the ballot typically requires collecting a set number of signatures from registered voters in support of the proposals. There is no mechanism for a national level initiative.
PopulationThe group of people that a researcher or pollster wants to study, such as evangelicals, senior citizens or Americans.Primaryelect your nominee for electionPublic OpinionCitizens views on politics and government actionsSampleWithin a population, the group of people surveyed in order to gauge the whole populations opinion. Researchers use samples because it would be impossible to interview the entire population.Spoils Systempractice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government positions and jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working hard and as an incentive to keep working for the partyDescribe how public opinion has evolved over time.Opinions may change as people call up different considerations to form them. Such variation reflects how the average person thinks and develops opinions.List and describe the FOUR sources that help people develop their public opinion:Socialization: Families and communities- public opinions start with what they learned from their parents, including liberal or conservative ideology, level of trust in others, class identity and ethnic identity. Shaped by parents, communities and relatives. Events: Public opinion is not fixed. All kids of events - from everyday interactions to traumatic, life-changing disasters- can capture a person's attention and cause her to revise her understanding of politics and the role of government. Group Identity: Such as gender, race, and education level. Might shape opinions in three ways. Individuals learn about politics from the people around them (those in the same region or born in the same era may have similar beliefs). Individuals may rely on others who look like them as a source of opinions. Politicians and Other Political Actors Politicians and other political actors, such as political parties and party leaders, influence and change opinion because people rely on their presumed experience. These leaders work to shape public opinion in order to win support for their proposalsWhat are some problems that may result in a mass survey?Issues with survey methods, unreliable responses, accuracy. With a mass survey of public opinion you never know if it is true. People opinions can change over time and are not always reliable. People don't usually put down their true opinion because they make opinions on the spot and are not based on all of their information. Sampling erros and social sensibility problems.According to the text, what are TWO reasons why public opinion is important?The opinions drive public demands for government action and range from spending to regulation and to other types of policy. They affect what the elected candidates do, say and follow. public opinion can also shed light on the reasons for specific policy outcomes.What are the Five major sources of media today?TV, newspapers, Radio, magazines, internet and booksDescribe what staging the news is and what are the arguments surrounding it?The prepping of the story that is broadcasted to people. The choosing of what is told and what is brushed under the rug.What is media effect? What are the four media effect?The study of media effects explores whether exposure to media coverage of politics changes what people think or do. The influence of media coverage on average citizens opinions and actions. Filtering: the influence on public opinion that results from journalists and editors decisions about which of many potential news stories to report. Slant: The imbalance in a story that covers one candidate or policy favorable without providing similar coverage of the other side Priming: the influence on the public's general impressions caused by positive or negative coverage of a candidate or an issue Framing: the influence on public opinion caused by the way a story is presented or covered, including the details, explanations, and context offered in the report.What is the difference between soft news and hard news?Soft news covers the "fluff", commentary, entertainment, arts and lifestyle. Hard news covers more of the foreign issues, political campaigns and policies and the more widespread important stories.Compare and contrast the FIRST party system and the SIXTH party systemThe first party system: Federalists vs. Democratic-republicans. The federalists believed in a strong national government, argued that Government power should be used to promote economic development through the creations of a national bank and the construction of federal roads. While the republicans believed in a weaker national government restricted by the constitutions, they did not want the federal intervention in the economy and they did not believe in manufacturing. The Sixth Party System: emerged as new political questions and debates divided the parties. Beginning in the late 1940s, many democratic candidates and party leaders, particularly outside the South, came out against the "separate but equal" system. At the same time, democratic politicians argued for expanding the role of the federal government into health care, antipoverty programs and education. Although some Republican politicians supported some of these initiatives, there was considerable Republican opposition to expanding the role of government in society.What are outside strategies used by interest groups-Actions that interest groups take across the country -Grassroots lobbying: relies on participation by group members (protests or letter writing campaigns) -Astroturf lobbying: lobbying method started by an interest group that is made to look like the independent participation of many individuals -501©(3) organization: tax code classification that applies to interest groups; makes donations to the group tax deductible yet limits the groups political activitiesWhat are inside strategies used by interest groups-Contact with elected officials/bureaucrats -Need a group to make an office in D.C/ hire a lobbying firm -Plead cases through direct lobbying: influence policy by speaking with elected officialsWhat are major resources for interest groups' lobbying tacticsMembers, Money, expertiseWhat are the four different types of interest groups?-Economic Groups: corporations, trade associations, labor groups, professional groups. Aim in ways that will bring their members economic benefits -Labor organizations: American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) lobby to make it easy for workers to form labor unions -Citizen groups (public interest groups): from those with mass membership to those with no members but claim to speak for larger parts of population -Single-issue groups: focus on certain topics (single government program, piece of legislation)What are voting cues?Pieces of information about a candidate that are readily available, easy to interpret, and lead a citizen to decide to vote for a particular candidate.List and define at least FOUR different voting cues.-Incumbency: Vote for the incumbent candidate Partisanship: vote for the candidate whose party affiliation matches our own -Retrospective evaluations: Focus on a small set of votes the incumbent has cast while in office or other duties of the office that you care about, and vote for the incumbent if he or she has behaved the way you want in these circumstances. -For (or against) the party in power: Vote for a candidate based on a comparison of that candidate's party with an assessment of the party in power (the party that controls the presidency and has majorities in the House and Senate)What are the constitutional requirements to be a president?Minimum age of 35, Born in the US, serves a term of 4 years has to have 14 years as a residentWhat are the constitutional requirements to be a senator?live in the US, at least 30 years old, live in the state represented, be a citizen for at least 9 yearsWhat are the constitutional requirements to be a representative?Minimum 25 years old, live in America for 7 years, and live in the state they want to represent.What are the major functions of an election?Selecting representatives, giving citizens the ability to influence the direction of government policy, and providing citizens with the opportunity to reward and punish officeholders seeking reelections.What are some of the benefits and problems of the American party system?The problem is that members of the party organization and the party in government do not always agree on what government should do and people who make them up are not entirely into democracy they are into themselves and their careers. The benefits are they recruit candidatesWhat are the major jobs of a political party?Political parties play an important dual role in American politics, from helping to organize elections to building consensus across branches of government.What is the difference between a primary election and a caucus election?-Primary elections appoint delegates to a party conference or select candidates for a principal, especially presidential, elections. It is a state level election. -Caucus elections: local meeting where registered members of a political party candidate and conducts other party business.What groups are included in a political party's organization?These groups include the Democratic and the Republican Governors' Associations, the Young Democrats, the Young Republicans, and more specialized groups such as the Republican Lawyers Organization or the democratic Leadership Council. And the Political Action Committees or the 527 Organizations are loosely associated.