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For the first test, Ch 1-7

4 types of large molecules in living things?

lipids*, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids


specialized macromolecule that speed up chemical reaction in cell

Hydrolosis is

process of a polymer turning into a monomer

Carbohydrates are made of

sugars and their polymers

Function of the cytoskeleton

maintains the cell's shape/ structure

Structural Isomer

same # atoms, but arranged in different ways (ex. pentane and 2-methyl butane)

Geometric Isomer

same Carbon backbone, but with double bonds (=plainer, inflexible)(ex. cis/ trans isomers)


Mirror images (= different biological sidegroups)


repeated chain of monomers, use covalent bonds via condensation reaction (loss of H2O)

Polymers are made of

carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids

monomer of carbohydrates


monomer of proteins

amino acids

monomer of nucleic acids


What 4 elements make up 96% of living matter?

C, H, O, N


differ in # of neurons

applied use of isotopes

date fossils, trace atoms through metabolic process, diagnose medical disorder


How strongly atoms attract e- from other atoms

when does non-polar occur?

atoms share e- evenly

when does polar covalent occur?

1 atom is more electronegative

Weak bonds?

Ion and hydrogen bonds


H2O sticks to self


H2O sticks to surfaces

Specific heat

NRG needed to raise 1g of substance 1C


Kinetic NRG from molecular motion


simple sugars (usually has CH2O), has carbonal group & multiple hydroxyl, sugars are aldose or ketose,


2 monosaccharides with a glycosidic linkage (covalent bond via dehydration)

structural polysaccharide

ex. cellulose (microfibrils in plant cell walls), chitin (arthropod exoskeleton)

Why aren't lipids polymers?

hydrophobic, because of nonpolar C-H bonds in hydrocarbon chains




hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tale, make cell membranes


hormones and cholesterol; carbon skeleton with 4 rings

Where is cholesterol synthesized?

in the liver of vertebrates


polymer of amino acid


1+ polypeptide


cell that lost its native shape (due to temp/ pH/ salt concentration)

where can you find DNA in a cell

nucleus & mitochondria


ribonucleic acid, controls protein synthesis


structural subunits of DNA and RNA; nitrogenous base (purine, pyramidine), pentose C, & phosphate group. Linked via sugars (sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate) to make nucleic acids


nitrogenous base for nucleotide; A, G


nitrogenous base for nucleotide; C, T, U


made of sugar monomers, store NRG (starch=plants, glycogen=animals)

Disaccharide carbs

glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose

fatty acids

glycerol + 3 hydrocarbon chains (tryglycerol)

saturated fats

solid at rT (butter, lard), no double bonds=saturated with hydrogen

unsaturated fats

liquid at rT (oils), have double bonds, lack flexibility, have a kink that restricts tessellation


describes a chemical compound that has both water loving, and water unloving properties


monomer: amino acids, many FXNs (structure, enzyme storage, transport, hormones, receptors, contractile proteins, motor, defensive)


make proteins fold in the correct way

nucleic acids

information stored and used, DNA(has t) & RNA(has u)


membrane-enclose compartments


study of cell structure


study of molecules & chemical process of cells

cell fractionation

disassembles cells


-bounded by plasma membrane
-cytosol semifluid suspension
-chromosomes (w/DNA) & ribosomes (make protein)

Eukaryotic cells house DNA in nucleus


Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic


Plasma membrane

barrier for 02/ nutrient/ waste passage


object's image size: real size


in animals, digests macromolecules; helps cells renew itself

Nuclear envelope

double membrane of lipid bilayer; perforated by pore structure (pore complex), which regulates entry/ exit of proteins, RNA, & macromolecules


non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus

Endomembrane system

nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, & plasma membrane

Smooth ER

synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbs, detoxifies drug/ poisons, stores Ca+ ions


organized DNA, carries genetic info, made of chromatin (DNA & proteins)

food vacuoles

operate via phagocytosis

contractile vacuoles

pump H2O, maintain molecular/ ionic balance


FXN cellular respiration, generates ATP by extracting NRG from sugars, fats & fuels (w/ help of O2)


organelle in plants where photosynthesis occurs; chlorophyl pigment; plastid w/ 3 membranes


"microbodies"; breaks down fatty acids; H2O2 byproduct


infoldings on mitochondria


polymer fibers through cytoplasm
-intermediate filaments


*thickest of cytoskeleton, made of tubulin, alpha or beta; FXN shape/ support "tracks"


actin monomer, very thin

intermediate filaments

keratin monomer, thick structure, w/ supercoiled fibers


=pair of centrioles; structure in nucleus; made of tubilin


oar-like, many per cell



Plant cell walls

outside plasma membrane, generally cellulose

Extracellular matrix

-connects to cytoskeleton
-change in ECM can signal changes in cell
-glycoprotein, collagens, proteoglycans

3 junctions between animal cells


Tight junction

so materials can diffuse between cells

Gap junction

like plasmodesmata; links cytoplasms


like rivets, keep cells together in sheets of tissue

Plasma membrane

has selective permeability (=LIFE)

Electron microscope

showed first cell membrane in 1950s


"temperature buffer" (liquid movement good; not melting or frozen stuck)

integral proteins

penetrate hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer; have 7 transmembrane helices (odd # = C & N terminus on opposite sides of membrane)

peripheral proteins

appendages to bilayer; attach to integral proteins

6 major fxns of proteins in lipid bilayer

-enzymatic activity
-signal transduction
-cell-cell recognition
-intercellular joining
-attachment to cytoskeleton/ extracellular matrix

Blood type

A, AB, B, O= variation in carbohydrates on surface of blood cells

membrane carbohydrates

glycoproteins & glycolipids


channel proteins, aid passage of H2O molecules


movement down a concentration gradient (passive transport)


ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose H2O


("same" tonicity) = no net movement across membrane


cell will lose H2O to its environment, shrivel, and die


cell will swell with H2O and burst






H2O loss in plants; plasma membrane separates from cell wall

transport protein

= facilitated diffusion; (channel & carrier proteins)

ion channels

gated channels that open/ close in response to stimulus

active transport

movement against gradient

Sodium-potassium pump

pumps Na out of plasma membrane and K into it. Main electrogenic pump in animals.

membrane potential

voltage across a membrane

electrochemical gradient

two forces that drive diffusion of ions across a membrane: chemical & electrical

Chemical force

ion's concentration gradient

Electrical force

effect of membrane potential on the ion's movement

electrogenic pump

transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane

proton pump

main electrogenic pump for plants


active transport driven by a concentration gradient


cell secrete certain molecules by fusing w/ plasma membrane


phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis


molecule binds specifically to receptor site of another molecule

Red blood cell

lipids (phospholipids) & proteins

nonpolar, hydrophobic

can diffuse through phospholipid bilayer

Rough ER (RER)

fxn: protein production, protein folding, quality control & dispatch. Rough because it has ribosomes on it.

Smooth ER (SER)

fxn: production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones. Smooth because it has no ribosomes and is associated with slippery smooth fats


domain of single celled microorganisms; have neither nucleus nor membrane bound organelles


large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms; lack true nucleus or organelles


a component of cells that synthesizes protein chains; assembles the twenty amino acid molecules to form the particular protein molecule determined by the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule.


Totality of an organism's chemical reactions; arises from interactions between molecules within the orderly environment of the cell

Metabolic Pathway

specific molecule which is altered in a number of defined steps, resulting in a certain product; each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme

Catabolic pathway

releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds (e.g. cellular respiration)

Anabolic pathway

("biosynthetic") consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones


the study of how energy flows through living organisms


the capacity to cause change; ability to do work

Kinetic energy

energy associated with the relative motion of objects

Heat "thermal" energy

kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules

Potential energy

energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure

Chemical energy

potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction


the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter

First law of thermodynamics

Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed (principle of conservation of energy)


a measure of disorder, or randomness

Second law of thermodynamics

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe


for a process to occur spontaneously, it must increase the entropy of the universe. Spontaneous rxns occur without the input of energy from the outside

Endergonic reaction

reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings (delta G is positive)

Energy coupling

the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one

Exergonic reaction

proceeds with a net release of free energy; occur spontaneously

Signal transduction pathway

The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted to a specific cellular response


aggregations of bacteria that often form recognizable structures containing regions of specialized function

Paracrine signaling

Local signaling in animals in which numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to the molecules of growth factor produced by a signal cell in their vicinity

Synaptic signaling

Occurs in the nervous system when an electrical signal along a nerve cell triggers the secretion of a chemical signal carried by neurotransmitter molecules

unstable system

higher G

stable system

lower G

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