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same Carbon backbone, but with double bonds (=plainer, inflexible)(ex. cis/ trans isomers)
applied use of isotopes
date fossils, trace atoms through metabolic process, diagnose medical disorder
simple sugars (usually has CH2O), has carbonal group & multiple hydroxyl, sugars are aldose or ketose,
ex. cellulose (microfibrils in plant cell walls), chitin (arthropod exoskeleton)
structural subunits of DNA and RNA; nitrogenous base (purine, pyramidine), pentose C, & phosphate group. Linked via sugars (sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate) to make nucleic acids
liquid at rT (oils), have double bonds, lack flexibility, have a kink that restricts tessellation
monomer: amino acids, many FXNs (structure, enzyme storage, transport, hormones, receptors, contractile proteins, motor, defensive)
-bounded by plasma membrane
-cytosol semifluid suspension
-chromosomes (w/DNA) & ribosomes (make protein)
double membrane of lipid bilayer; perforated by pore structure (pore complex), which regulates entry/ exit of proteins, RNA, & macromolecules
non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus
FXN cellular respiration, generates ATP by extracting NRG from sugars, fats & fuels (w/ help of O2)
organelle in plants where photosynthesis occurs; chlorophyl pigment; plastid w/ 3 membranes
-connects to cytoskeleton
-change in ECM can signal changes in cell
-glycoprotein, collagens, proteoglycans
penetrate hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer; have 7 transmembrane helices (odd # = C & N terminus on opposite sides of membrane)
6 major fxns of proteins in lipid bilayer
-attachment to cytoskeleton/ extracellular matrix
pumps Na out of plasma membrane and K into it. Main electrogenic pump in animals.
two forces that drive diffusion of ions across a membrane: chemical & electrical
Rough ER (RER)
fxn: protein production, protein folding, quality control & dispatch. Rough because it has ribosomes on it.
Smooth ER (SER)
fxn: production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones. Smooth because it has no ribosomes and is associated with slippery smooth fats
a component of cells that synthesizes protein chains; assembles the twenty amino acid molecules to form the particular protein molecule determined by the nucleotide sequence of an RNA molecule.
Totality of an organism's chemical reactions; arises from interactions between molecules within the orderly environment of the cell
specific molecule which is altered in a number of defined steps, resulting in a certain product; each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme
releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds (e.g. cellular respiration)
First law of thermodynamics
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed (principle of conservation of energy)
Second law of thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
for a process to occur spontaneously, it must increase the entropy of the universe. Spontaneous rxns occur without the input of energy from the outside
Signal transduction pathway
The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted to a specific cellular response
aggregations of bacteria that often form recognizable structures containing regions of specialized function
Local signaling in animals in which numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to the molecules of growth factor produced by a signal cell in their vicinity
Occurs in the nervous system when an electrical signal along a nerve cell triggers the secretion of a chemical signal carried by neurotransmitter molecules
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