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Papal states


depicted the human form in exaggerated poses, in unrealistic settings.

Maichelangelo. Pieta. 1500

theme of pieta (pity) Mary and crucified Christ - mother mourning over dead child: relateable, personal moment, everlasting mourning
Michelangelo chooses a pieta bc was commisioned for tomb sculpture (everlasting mourning)
body of Christ is usually shown battered michel breaks from tradition by showing him idealized body does away with ugly reality wants to showcase a visual harmony (calmnes)
Christ looks as if he is sleeping.
PYRAMIDAL: visually appealing, balance even distribution, solves compositional problems of vertical vs. horizontal

Michelangelo. David. 1501-04 Florence

Large sculpture to sit outside of city. in palazzo del sanria - big ties to ancient Greece
idealized male nude, fully adult male, changes view of David. CONTRAPASTO position
shows part of narrative David before the battle high anticipation, tension of waiting
tense, clenched hand, concentrated expression.
greatest vulnerability


calm before the storm, great tension. concerned expression. (characterizes M. work)

Leonardo. Mona Lisa. (La Gioconda) 1502-06

the mysterious smile
image of Florentine merchants wife, on one in particular
not a side profile Gaze is straight on: seen as a HUGE breach in modesty
3/4 pose - dynamic, not static
naturalistic as possible


smoky dark atmosphere of composition, gives opportunity for contrast, darker picture to highlight light areas


is experimental: knows tradition but didn't always follow it, thinks about composition

Leonardo. Last Supper. 1495-98

sforza was patron of picture (big client)
not a new concept but its what Leo does with pre-existing format.
figures have emotion in their gestures, hands - not self-contained. All lines/gestures point to christ.
(compositional clue of where to look) figures interact unifies
christ is in pyramidal shape - illusionism (3 dimension)
each group of apostles is mini group of apostles and each group is in pyramidal form (narrow at top, wider base) keeps it dynamic
judas is leanin away from Christ
tried to blend oil and fresco (oil+water) so it falls off as he's painting

Raphael. The Small Cowper Madonna. 1505.

synthesize repetitive round shape - innocence
virgin of humility: outside in natural sitting, relateable

Raphael. School of Athens. Stanza Della Segnatura. 1510-1511 Rome

Linear Perspective
spatial depth, composition organization
promoting ties to ancient Greece/Rome
Gathering of all the important intellectual people of ancient times. plato and aristole are in center
Raphael make figures look like great Renaissance artists of his time
so greatest intellectuals of all time ar eon par with Raphael and other artists - emphasizes celebrity

Bramante. Tempietto Church of San Pietro. in Montorio, Rome 1502-40

site of temple is on older monument whre st. peter was martyed (killed)
- connects Renaissance popes to predecessors
-martyria: earliest martyrs buried, circular tombs
temple revokes martyr and classical architecture
Balustrade; little porch that tells this isn't ancient building
columns and temple are visually punctuates a beat (arch is frozen music )balanced, symmetrical, harmonious
- Columns are evenly spaced, then balustrade is evenly spaced but different from columns

St. Peter's Basilica

Bramante tears down basilica, but dies before can finished over 150 years different architects try to finish.
Papal patronage

Michelangelo. Sistine Chapel Ceiling. 1508-12

Old testament at top, new testament at bottom
Ignudi: nude figures, new testament figures waiting to be born

Michelangelo. Creation of Adam. Sistine Chapel Ceiling. New St Peter's

Ignudi frame the scenes and act as registers (separation)
-moment of high tension of Adam and God - waiting for "spark of life" (adam's lifeless body)

Michelangelo. Dome of New St. Peter's. Basilica. 1546-64

compared to dome by giotto -hints notion of civic pride
lots of reference to classical architecture
despite all the intellectuals still couldn't get a dome bigger than pantheon

Michelangelo. Last Judgement. Sistine Chapel. New St. Peter's 1536-41

Pope Paul III: wants paintings by michelangelo
Christ in center: moment of high tension right before Christ judges.
Issues with Last Judgement:
too many nudes: too much reference to Greek/Rome with out overlay of Christianity

Counter Reformation

a group of people called Council of Trent decide what and what not should be in art (art was meant to teach about Christianity)

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