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78 terms

Vocab Chapter 40/41

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anatomy
study of body structure
physiology
processes and functions of an organism
tissues
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism
epithelial tissue
membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
connective tissue
tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together
nervous tissue
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response
muscle tissue
a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move
organs
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ systems
a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
receptor
an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
control center
this determines the next action in a feedback system by sending output to an effector, processes the signal and sends instructions
effector
an organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses
negative feedback system
Reverses a change in a controlled condition
metabolic rate
The rate at which the body burns calories to produce energy.
endothermic
describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings
ectothermic
cold blooded
essential nutrients
substances the body requires for normal growth and health but cannot manufacture in sufficient amounts: they must be obtained int he diet.
essential amino acids
Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body; they must be eatin in foods
essential fatty acids
fats needed by the body that must be consumed in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them
vitamins
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
minerals
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
herbivore
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
omnivore
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
carnivore
any animal that feeds on flesh
ingestion
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
digestion
the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body
enzymatic hydrolysis
the process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water
absorption
the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion
elimination
The passing of undigested material out of the digestive compartment
intracellular digestion
The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
extracellular digestion
process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract
gastrovascular cavity
An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body
alimentary canals
complete digestive tract consisting of a tube extending between 2 openings: mouth and anus, food moves in 1 direction and can be organized into special regions
saliva
a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth
salivary amylase
Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch
bolus
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
epiglottis
a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
esophagus
the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal
gastric juices
a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion.
pepsin
Enzyme that breaks down proteins in the stomach
pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin
acid chyme
a mixture of recently swallowed food and gastric juice
pyloric sphincter
opening from the stomach into the duodenum, Controls passage of food from stomach to small intestine
small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
duodenum
first portion of the small intestine
bicarbonate
HCO₃⁻
bile
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles
carbohydrates
main source of energy for the body, Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
pancreatic amylase
Enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides (Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose)
proteins
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
trypsin
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
chymotrypsin
enzyme that breaks down peptide bonds, mostly inactive
dipeptidases
further hasten digestion by splitting small peptides, Enzyme in small intestine that split small peptides
carboxypeptidase
Protein digesting enzyme that is activated by trypsin; released as procarboxypeptidase (inactive form)
aminopeptidase
An enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time, beginning at the opposite end of the polypeptide containing a free carboxyl group.
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
fats
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
emulsification
process in which bile breaks down fat
lipase
enzyme that breaks down fat in pancreas
villi
Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area
microvilli
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
lacteal
any of the lymphatic vessels that convey chyle from the small intestine to the thoracic duct
hepatic portal vessel
A large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content
liver
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
gastrin
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
enterogastrones
intestinal mucosa cells secrete this hormone that inhibit gastric gland activity during inhibitory component of intestinal phase called the enterogastric reflex
secretin
peptic hormone produced by the mucous lining of the small intestine
cholescystokinin
secreted by intestinal cells, acts in opposition to ghrelin as an appetite suppressor
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
cecum
first part of the large intestine
appendix
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum
rectum
The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated