APUSH Chapter 29 (The American Pageant)
Terms in this set (56)
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
A crazy and brilliant economic reformer. In his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, he made fun of the business elite. He said that engineers, who were shaped by discipline of machines, would be better leaders than the business class.
Jacob A. Riis
Danish immigrant reporter for the New York Sun who shocked middle class Americans with his account "How the Other Half Lives", a damning indictment of the poverty of the New York slums that profoundly influenced New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
founded the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities. She is considered the founder of public health nursing
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil in McClure's Magazine.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Following the Color Line" (poverty and misfortunes of the black women in the south). He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Robert M. Lafollete
Progressive governor of Wisconsin who was elected in 1900. He limited campaign spending, He created a commission to regulate railroads and utilities so they wouldn't overcharge customers, He created a commission to oversee transportation, civil service & taxation.
Hiram W. Johnson
Republican govenor of California. Regulated railroads and trusts. Helped break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics. Set up political machine of his own.
Charles Evans Hughes
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Lochner v. New York
(1905) This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment which allowed Lochner to regulate his business when he made a contract. The specific contract Lochner made violated the New York statute which stated that bakers could not work more than 60 hours per week, and more than 10 hours per day. Ultimately, it was ruled that the New York State law was invalid, and interfered with the freedom of contract.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
A fire at the factory in NYC shocked Americans and focused attention on the need to protect workers. Workers in the factory had little chance to escape the raging fire because managers locked most of the exists. The fire killed 146 workers most young Jewish women. After the blaze, outraged Progressives intensified their calls for reform. Ny passed laws to make workplaces safer. Many states set up workers compensation laws to help pay workers hurt on the job.
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
- Control of Corporations
- Consumer Protection
- Conservation of Natural Resources
Anthracite Coal Mine
In 1902 (Roosevelt's term) the United Mine Workers went on strike. The union demanded 3 things before they went back to work. 1.) 10% wage increase 2.) 8 hr. work day (vs. 10) and 3.) they wanted to be recognized and they wanted every coal miner to be a part of their union. Roosevelt took their demands into consideration (where as any other president would have sent in scabs or the military to kick the unions butt) and he decided to compromise. The workers got a 10% wage increase and a 9 (not 8) hour work day and the union wouldn't become recognized. This deal became known as the Square Deal (everybody gets a fair deal).
- first time president threats to use the military in place of the workers due to national impact
Elkins Act of 1903
made it illegal for railroad officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular railroads, and railroads couldn't change set rates without notifying the public
Hepburn Act of 1906
Proposal for railroad regulation enacted in 1906 that extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and gave it the power to set maximum freight rates.
Name describing T. Roosevelt for his attempts to breakup businesses hurting the public interest
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
A United States federal law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. Unlike previous laws ordering meat inspections which were enforced to assure European nations from banning pork trade, the law was strongly motivated to protect the American diet. All labels on any type of food had to be 100 percent accurate. Although all harmful food wasn't banned, there were still warnings provided on the container. The law was partly a response to the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, an expose of the Chicago meat packing industry, as well as to other Progressive Era muckraking publications of the day.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
specified that certain drugs are to be sold by prescription only; the fed government is to ensure that drug packages accurately state the name and quantities of the active ingredients.
Desert Land Act of 1977
1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
a turning point in establishing the responsibility of the federal government for protecting public lands from rescource exploitation
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Newsland Act of 1902
This act collected money from land sails and put it towards irrigation (date)
The Sierra Club
John Miur, political group that lobbies and tries to get environmental laws passed
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
it authorized national banks to issue emergency currency, was the precursor of the Federal Reserve Act
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
Rule of Reason
under the Sherman Act, contracts or conspiracies are illegal only if they constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade or attempt to monopolize. If an agreement promotes competition, it may be legal. If it suppresses or destroys competition, it is unreasonable and illegal., under the Sherman Act, contracts or conspiracies are illegal only if they constitute an unreasonable restraint of trade or attempt to monopolize. If an agreement promotes competition, it may be legal. If it suppresses or destroys competition, it is unreasonable and illegal.
Payne - Aldrich Bill
A bill that added hundreds of higher tariff revisions. Signed by Taft which went against his campaign promises and upset the progressives
National Progressive Republican League
Senator La Follette would be nominated for president, Taft ends up getting nomination and not Roosevelt
Election of 1912
When the Republican's votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt, the Democrats stayed together and elected Wilson as President. The Republicans had no chance because they had two candidates running.
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
The Bitter Cry of the Children,Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Ended child labor and increased enrollment in schools
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Muckraker during the Progressive Era; wrote "The Octopus" (1901) that described the power of the railroads over Western farmers
City Commissioner Plan
Cities hire experts in different fields to run a single aspect of government: Ex. Sanitation Commissioner
City Manager Plan
A professional city manager is hired to run each department of the city and report to the city council
allowed voters to remove an official by petition
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
process by which people vote directly on a bill
Election in which voters choose party nominees
National Reclamation Act (1902)
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefiting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
Federal Trade Act
Federal legislation passed in 1914 that created the Federal Trade Commission and gave it the responsibility to monitor deceptive or misleading advertising and unfair business practices.
Underwood Tariff (1913)
lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Keating - Owen Act
supported by Wilson in 1916, prohibited shipment across state lines of goods produced by underage children, thus giving an expanded importance to the constitutional clause assigning Congress the task of regulating Interstate Commerce. Unfortunately, Congress struck down the act, and a new law attempted to achieve the same goal by imposing a heavy tax on the products of Child Labor.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
- A Red Record (1895)
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
- Tuskegee Institute