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What is Growth?
An increase in number and size of cells as they divide and synthesize new proteins; results in increase in size and weight of the whole or any of its parts.
What is Development?
A gradual change and expansion; advancement from lower to more advanced stages of complexity; the emerging and expanding of the individuals capacities through growth, maturation and learning.
What is Maturation?
An increase in competence and adaptability; aging; usually used to describe a qualitative change; a change in the complexity of a structure that makes it possible for that structure to begin functioning; to function at a higher level.
What is Differentiation?
Processes by which early cells and structures are systematically modified and altered to achieve specific and characteristic physical and chemical properties; sometimes used to describe the trend of mass to specific; development from simple to more complex activities and functions.
What is the third pattern of development?
Differentiation, describes development from simple operations to more complex activities and functions.
What is a sensitive period?
Limited times during the process of growth when the organism will interact with a particular environment in a specific manner. Makes organisms more susceptible to positive or negative influences.
How fast do infants grow from birth to 6 months?
Bright weight doubles by the end of the first 4 - 7 months.
How is a child skeletal age determined?
Radiographic determination of osseous maturation, specifically hand and wrist.
How is a childs bone age determined?
By comparing the mineralization of ossification centers and advancing bony form to age related standards.
What is the Basal Energy Requirement formula?
108 kcal/kg body weight in infancy and decrease 40 - 45 kcal at maturity.
What is Temperament?
The manner of thinking, behaving, or reacting characteristics of an individual.
What is an Easy Child?
Even tempered, regular and predictable in habits, have positive approach to new stimuli. Open and adaptable to change, display a mild to moderate intense mood that is typically positive. 40% children.
What is a Difficult Child?
High active, irritable, and irregular in their habits. Negative withdrawal is typical, require structured environment. Adapt slowly to new routines, people or situations. Mood expressions are intense and primarily negative. Frequent crying, frustration and violent tantrums. 10% children.
What is a slow-to-warm up child?
React negatively and with mild intensity to new stimuli and unless pressured, adapt slowly with repeated contact. Respond only mild but passive resistance to novelty or changes in routine. Inactive and moody but show moderate irregularity in functions. 15 % children.
What is social affective play?
Type of play that is one of the first types of play in which infants engage with other people, taking pleasure in the relationship.
What is Sense-Pleasure play?
Characterized by nosocial situations where the child is stimulated by objects in the environment.
What is Unoccupied behavior?
Type of behavior that is not playful but focuses on anything momentarily. Daydreaming.
What is Dramatic play?
Predominant form of play in the preschool period, children pretend and fantasize.
What is Solitary play?
Describes children playing alone with toys different from those used by other children in the same area.
What is associative play?
No group goal is present, each child acts according to his or her own wishes.
What is the importance of active play?
Essential for muscle development and serves a useful purpose as a release for surplus energy.
What do children gain through sensorimotor play?
Children explore the nature of the physical world. Tactile, auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimulation.
What is intellectual development?
Through exploration and manipulation children learn colors, shapes, sizes, textures and the significance of objects. Numbers, abstract concepts and spatial relationships.
What is a choke tube tester?
About the same diameter of a child's windpipe, is used to determine whether a toy is a choking hazard or not.
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