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When an individuals genes are responsible for some structural or functional defect
Down's Syndrome (3 chromosomes instead of 2)
Cystic Fibrosis (lungs and kidneys)
When genetic formation is intact but other factors in embryo's intrauterine environment interfere with normal development
Toxoplasmosis, fetal alcohol syndrome, thalidomide
When a diseae is caused by factors other than genetic or developmental ones
Bullous emphysema from smoking
Brain abscess from pimple popping
Spasm of blood vessels of fingers and toes
No blood flow turns skin white, then blue, then red when blood finally gets there
May be a manifestation of systemic sclerosis of immunohemolytic anemia
Dryness of the mucous membranes due to damage to exocrine glands
May be a manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus
Involves other organs or systems or entire organism
TB in lungs spreads , cancer in lymph nodes
Damage is limited to one or more distinct sites within the diseased organ
Scirrhous cancer of stomach pylorus
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