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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

a molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use

ADP (adenosine diphosphate)

low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP


a process by which some organisms use chemical energy as an energy source to make their own food


process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water


a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light


membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

light-dependent reactions

part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from the sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions

light-independent reactions

part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to make carbohydrates


series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy from sunlight in the thylakoid membrane

electron transport chain

series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP and ATP by transferring electrons

ATP synthase

enzyme that adds a high-energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP

Calvin cycle

process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to make simple sugars from CO2

cellular respiration

process of using oxygen to produce ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules


process that requires oxygen to occur


process that does not require oxygen to occur

Krebs cycle

process during celluar respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain


anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis

lactic acid

product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells

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