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18 terms

Ch. 4 Vocab. Nowiki

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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
a molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
chemosynthesis
a process by which some organisms use chemical energy as an energy source to make their own food
photosynthesis
process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
chlorophyll
a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light
thylakoids
membrane-bound structure within chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and other light-absorbing pigments used in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
light-dependent reactions
part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from the sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions
light-independent reactions
part of photosynthesis that uses energy absorbed during the light-dependent reactions to make carbohydrates
photosystem
series of light-absorbing pigments and proteins that capture and transfer energy from sunlight in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain
series of proteins in the thylakoid and mitochondrial membranes that aid in converting ADP and ATP by transferring electrons
ATP synthase
enzyme that adds a high-energy phosphate group to ADP to form ATP
Calvin cycle
process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to make simple sugars from CO2
cellular respiration
process of using oxygen to produce ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules
aerobic
process that requires oxygen to occur
anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen to occur
Krebs cycle
process during celluar respiration that breaks down a carbon molecule to produce molecules that are used in the electron transport chain
fermentation
anaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
lactic acid
product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells