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-studies types of matter and how they interact
-important to understand global climate change, air pollution, energy issues

What is matter?

all material in the universe that has mass and occupies space

Law of Conservation of Matter

matter can be transformed from one type to another but cannot be destroyed or created


fundamental type of matter


smallest component that maintain an element's chemical properties


protons- positive charged
neutrons- no charge
electrons-negatively charged


atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons


atoms that gain or lose electrons to become electrically charged


combinations of two or more atoms


molecules composed of atoms of two or more different elements

covalent bonds

electrons are shared b/w two atoms to complete the outer shells of each

ionic compounds

an electron is transferred

hydrogen bond

oxygen from one water molecule attracts hydrogen atoms of another

organic compounds

carbona atoms joined by covalent bonds

inorganic compounds

lack the carbon-carbon bond


building blocks of life


long chains of repeating units of smaller organic molecules


long chains of amino acids
-produce tissues, store energy, transport material

nucleic acids

direct protein production


the capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter

first law of thermodynamics

energy can change forms but cannot be created or destroyed

second law of thermodynamics

energy changes from a more ordered to a less ordered state


organisms that produce their own food


process of turning the sun's energy into concentrated chemical energy


study of earth's physical features, processes and history

geothermal heat

radioisotopes deep in the planet heat inner earth

Earth's core

solid and molten iron

Earth's mantle

less dense, elastic rock


thin, brittle, low density layer of rock


uppermost mantle and crust

rock cycle

heating, melting, cooling, breaking, and reassembling of rocks and minerals

Igneous rock

lava- magma that reaches the surface
-forms when magma cools

sedimentary rock

sediments are compacted or cemented

metamorphic rock

great heat or pressure on a rock changes its form

plate tectonics

movement of lithospheric plates


a release of energy along plate boundaries and faults


molten rock erupts through earth's surface

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