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37 terms

Earth's Physical Systems

STUDY
PLAY
Chemistry
-studies types of matter and how they interact
-important to understand global climate change, air pollution, energy issues
What is matter?
all material in the universe that has mass and occupies space
Law of Conservation of Matter
matter can be transformed from one type to another but cannot be destroyed or created
Element
fundamental type of matter
atoms
smallest component that maintain an element's chemical properties
Nucleus
protons- positive charged
neutrons- no charge
electrons-negatively charged
isotopes
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
ions
atoms that gain or lose electrons to become electrically charged
molecules
combinations of two or more atoms
compounds
molecules composed of atoms of two or more different elements
covalent bonds
electrons are shared b/w two atoms to complete the outer shells of each
ionic compounds
an electron is transferred
hydrogen bond
oxygen from one water molecule attracts hydrogen atoms of another
organic compounds
carbona atoms joined by covalent bonds
inorganic compounds
lack the carbon-carbon bond
macromolecules
building blocks of life
polymers
long chains of repeating units of smaller organic molecules
proteins
long chains of amino acids
-produce tissues, store energy, transport material
nucleic acids
direct protein production
energy
the capacity to change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter
first law of thermodynamics
energy can change forms but cannot be created or destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
energy changes from a more ordered to a less ordered state
autotrophs
organisms that produce their own food
photosynthesis
process of turning the sun's energy into concentrated chemical energy
Geology
study of earth's physical features, processes and history
geothermal heat
radioisotopes deep in the planet heat inner earth
Earth's core
solid and molten iron
Earth's mantle
less dense, elastic rock
crust
thin, brittle, low density layer of rock
lithosphere
uppermost mantle and crust
rock cycle
heating, melting, cooling, breaking, and reassembling of rocks and minerals
Igneous rock
lava- magma that reaches the surface
-forms when magma cools
sedimentary rock
sediments are compacted or cemented
metamorphic rock
great heat or pressure on a rock changes its form
plate tectonics
movement of lithospheric plates
earthquake
a release of energy along plate boundaries and faults
volcano
molten rock erupts through earth's surface