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73 terms

Lumbar Spine, Sternum & Ribs

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The Scottie dog is visualized on the:
AP projection in the oblique position
The intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine and the midsagittal plane form an angle of:
90°
For the AP axial projection of the coccyx, the CR is directed:
10° caudad
When using a 14- x 17-in (35- x 43-cm) IR for an AP projection of the lumbar spine, the CR is directed to:
L4-L5
The left zygapophyseal joints are best demonstrated on the:
Left posterior oblique position
The most posterior portion of a lumbar vertebra is the:
Spinous process
When taking radiographs to evaluate fusion of the vertebrae, place the IR:
1 to 2 inches below the iliac crest
The zygapophyseal joints and midsagittal plane form an angle of:
30° for the lower vertebrae and 50° for the upper vertebrae
The front leg of the "Scottie dog" represents the:
Inferior articular process
Which topographic landmark corresponds to L2-L3?
Lower costal margin
For an AP axial projection of the sacrum, the CR is directed:
15° cephalad
The intervertebral joints in the lumbar spine are classified as:
Cartilaginous and amphiarthrodial
The number of fused segments forming the coccyx is:
3 to 5
The intervertebral foramen of a lumber vertebra are best demonstrated on the:
Lateral projection
When the spine is unsupported for a lateral projection for L5-S1, the CR should be directed:
5° to 8° caudad
For an AP projection of the sacroiliac joints in the oblique position, the patient is rotated:
25° to 30°
Which positioning line is used to determine CR angle for a lateral L5-S1 projection?
Interiliac
For an AP projection of the lumbar spine in the oblique position, the patient is rotated:
45°
Which topographic landmarks are used to direct the CR for an AP axial projection of the sacrum?
Anterior superior iliac spine, Symphysis pubis
For a lateral projection of the sacrum and coccyx, the CR is directed:
3 to 4 inches posterior to the ASIS
For a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joints, the CR is directed
3 inches (7 cm) inferior to the vertebra prominens
The posterior aspect of a rib is
3 to 5 inches superior to its anterior aspect
To demonstrate ribs above the diaphragm on a radiographic image
Use a low kV and Take the exposure in inspiration
A rib fracture may result in
Hemothorax, Pulmonary contusion, or Pneumothorax
For a radiograph of the sternoclavicular joints, the recommended kV range is
60 kV to 70 kV
For a PA projection for ribs above the diaphragm
Align the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the IR, Direct the CR to the level of T7, and Take the exposure on suspended inspiration
A radiographic image taken to demonstrate ribs below the diaphragm should include ribs numbered
8 through 12
Which rib is classified as floating
11th
The IR size and orientation for a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position is
10 x 12 inches (24 x 30 cm) lengthwise
The inferior rib angle (lowest costal margin) is at the level of
L2-L3
For an AP of the ribs below the diaphragm, the recommended kV range is
70 kV to 80 kV
To demonstrate ribs below the diaphragm on a radiographic image
use a medium kV
For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, place a
Right side marker in the upper right corner of the IR
To demonstrate the sternum on a radiographic image using the RAO position, use
Low kV, A long exposure time, and A 40-inch (100-cm) SID
Which body habitus type would require the greatest degree of patient rotation for an RAO position to demonstrate the sternum
Asthenic
To demonstrate the axillary portion of the ribs, the patient is rotated
45°
The only connection between the bony thorax and shoulder girdle is the
Sternoclavicular joint
For a lateral projection of the sternum
Place the patient in an erect position and Draw the patient's arms posteriorly
Which rib is considered a true rib
7th
For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the CR is directed halfway between the
Jugular notch and Xiphoid process
The costovertebral joint is formed by the
Head of the rib and Body of a thoracic vertebra
Palpable topographic sternal landmarks include the
Jugular notch, Sternal angle, and Xiphoid process
The body of the sternum articulates with costocartilage of ribs
3 through 7
For a radiograph of the sternoclavicular joints in the recumbent oblique position
Rotate the patient 15° and Direct the CR to the level of T2-T3
For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the recommended kV range is
60 kV to 70 kV
The xiphoid process is at the same level as
T9-T10
For a radiograph of the sternum in the RAO position, the typical degree of patient rotation is
15° to 20°
the lumbar spine is a ___________ curvature
compensatory
the lumbar spine has _____________ ____________ type of curvature
lordotic, concave
the portion of the lumbar spine between inferior and superior articular processes is the
laminae or pars interarticularis
the AP Axial lumbar spine projection is done to visualize an open AP L5-S1 joint true or false
true
on properly positioned oblique lumbar spine, the pedicles or eyes should appear in the ______ aspect of the vertebral body
center
the anterior ridge of S1 is called
sacral promontory
articulate with ilium of pelvis to form SI joints
auricular surface
advantages of a PA lumbar include
prone position places spine more parallel and opens spaces between disks, lowers ovarian dose
disadvantage of a PA lumbar include
increases magnification
Which oblique positions would demonstrate the left lumbar facet joints
LPO & RAO
What projections and position are used and why for a scoliosis series
PA projection to reduce dose,
Convex side of curvature placed toward IR on the lateral projection to reduce magnification
name of method that is required to assess scoliosis in which the patient is required to stand with one foot on a 3" block
Ferguson method
An RPO for the SI joints will demonstrate the _____ SI joint
left
Which pair/s of ribs attache to the sternum at the level of the sternal angle
2nd
Why is the RAO position for the sternum preferred to the LAO position
places sternum in heart shadow
Which olbique positions will best demonstrate the axillary portion of the left ribs
LPO & RAO
Which oblique best demonstrates the right sternoclavicular joint
RAO
Which two projections must be taken for an injury to the right anterior upper ribs
PA & LAO
A radiograph of an RAO sternum reveals that it is partially superimposed over the spine. What must be done to eliminate this problem during the repeat exposure
Increase patient rotation
A radiograph of a lateral projection of the sternum reveals that the patient's ribs are superimposed over the sternum. What is the error?
Rotation, not true lateral
why does breathing technique improve imaging of the sternum
lung & rib markings will become obscured allowing the sternum to remain sharp and defined
which images of the ribs are taken erect and which are taken recumbant and why
erect - for ribs 1-9 if there is pain and also diaphragm is at lowest position on full inspiration.
recumbant - for ribs 8-12 because diaphragm is at its highest position on expiration allowing structures to be visualized better thru abdominal structures.
Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the right anterior upper ribs?
PA & LAO
Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the left anterior upper ribs?
PA & RAO
Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the right posterior upper ribs?
AP & RPO
Which AP/PA projection and OBL position should be taken for an injury to the left posterior upper ribs?
AP & LPO