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Pearson Lab Chp 6
Terms in this set (4)
The various parts of the endomembrane system serve different functions in the cell. In this activity, you will identify the roles of each part of the endomembrane system.
The endomembrane system is critical for the synthesis, processing, and movement of proteins and lipids in the cell. The smooth ER functions mainly in lipid synthesis and processing. The rough ER is the site of secretory protein synthesis. These proteins are processed further in the Golgi apparatus, from where they are dispatched in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Lysosomes, whose enzymes and membranes are made and processed by the rough ER and Golgi apparatus, function in the hydrolysis of macromolecules, such as in phagocytosis and autophagy.
All proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cell. Some ribosomes float freely in the cytosol, while others are bound to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. Most proteins made by free ribosomes function in the cytosol. Proteins made by bound ribosomes either function within the endomembrane system or pass through it and are secreted from the cell.
Which of the following proteins are synthesized by bound ribosomes?
ost proteins that function in the cytosol (such as actin) or in the nucleus (such as DNA polymerase) are synthesized by free ribosomes. Proteins that function within the endomembrane system (such as lysosomal enzymes) or those that are destined for secretion from the cell (such as insulin) are synthesized by bound ribosomes.
As a protein destined for the endomembrane system is being synthesized by a ribosome, the first amino acids in the growing polypeptide chain act as a signal sequence. That signal sequence ensures that the ribosome binds to the outer membrane of the ER and that the protein enters the ER lumen.
Proteins that are secreted from a eukaryotic cell must first travel through the endomembrane system.
As they are being synthesized, secretory proteins enter the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. From the ER, vesicles transport these proteins to the Golgi, where they are sequentially modified and concentrated in a cis-to-trans direction. Secretory vesicles bud from the Golgi and move along cytoskeletal filaments to eventually fuse with the plasma membrane, secreting their protein cargo. Each of these transport steps requires specialized proteins to ensure that the cargo is sent to the proper location and is able to fuse with the target membrane.
Pulse-chase experiments and protein location
Scientists can track the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system using an approach known as a pulse-chase experiment. This experiment involves
the "pulse" phase: Cells are exposed to a high concentration of a radioactively labeled amino acid for a short period to tag proteins that are being synthesized.
the "chase" phase: Any unincorporated radioactively labeled amino acids are washed away and large amounts of the same, but unlabeled, amino acid are added.
Only those proteins synthesized during the brief pulse phase are radioactively tagged. These tagged proteins can be tracked through the chase period to determine their location in the cell.
The data below were obtained from a pulse-chase experiment in which cells were examined at different times during the chase period. The numbers represent the radioactivity (measured in counts per minute) recorded at each of the indicated sites. The higher the number, the greater the radioactivity.
Based on these data, what is the most likely function of the cells in this experiment?
The cells in this experiment were macrophages. These immune system cells have many lysosomes for the destruction of bacteria and other invaders brought into the cell via phagocytosis. The enzymes (hydrolases) that carry out this catabolic activity are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the lysosomes.
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