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anything that takes up space and has mass


substance that cannot be broken down to any other sunstance by chemical reactions


substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

Essential Elements

chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce

Trace Elements

element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts


smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element


subatomic particle having no electrical charge its neutal and is found in the nuvleus of an atom


sunatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of a atom


subatomic particle with a single negative charge one or more move around the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Nucleus

stoms sense central core, containing protons and neurons


measure of mass for atoms and subatomic partiles

Atomic Number

number of protons in a nucleus of a atom

Mass Number

sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atoms nucleus

Atomic Mass

total mass of an atom

radioactive Isotope

isotope that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy


one of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons


Capacity to cause change, especially to do work (move matter against opposing forces)

Potential energy

energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement

Electron shell

energy level of electrons ay a characteristic distance from the nucleus of an atom

Valence Electron

electron in the outermost electron shell

Valence shell

otermost energy shell of an atom, containing valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom


three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time

Chemical bonds

attraction between two atoms, resulting from sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms.

Covalent bond

type of strong chemical bond where two atom share one or more pairs of valence electrons

single bond

single covalent bond sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms

double bond

double covalent bond, sharing two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms


atom or group atoms that gained or lost more elctrons, thus acquiring a charge


positively charged ion


negatively charged ion

ionic bond

chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions

ionic compunds

compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond also called salt

Hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly + hydrogen atom of a polar coalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule

Van der Waals Interaction

weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from transient local partial charges

Chemical reaction

making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to charges in the compostion of matter


starting material in a chemical reaction


material resulting from a chemical reaction

Chemical equilibrium

chemical reaction, state where the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentration of the reactants and products do not change with time

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