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Ch 1. Introducing Community Psychology
Terms in this set (43)
Assumptions we make about a problem define how we approach and try to solve it.
Reduce likelihood of problems by strengthening protective factors and reducing risk factors in individuals, families, schools, organizations, and communities.
Focuses on roles, decision making, communication, and conflict in organizations to promote employee job satisfaction or effectiveness of human services, social change organizations, or schools
Put in place when traditional services do not meet the needs of some populations.
At grassroots levels helps citizens organize to identify local issues and decide how to address them.
bring together citizens and community institutions to address a community problem together (part of comm organizing.)
Community researchers and citizens collaborate to provide useful information for action on community issues
helps to determine whether community programs effectively attain their goals and how they can be improved
Policy Research and Advocacy
includes research on community and social issues, efforts to inform decision makers about courses for action and evaluation of the effects of social policies.
Context Minimization Error
- ignoring or discounting the importance of contexts in an individual's life.
- Leads to psych theories and research findings that are flawed or only hold true in limited circumstances.
- Can lead to therapy interventions or social programs that fail because they reform without understanding or altering context within idvs live.
the encapsulating environments within which an individual lives.
- influence our lives as much as individual characteristics do
Fundamental Attribution Error
- the tendency of observers watching an actor to overestimate the importance of the actor's individual characteristics and underestimate the importance of situational factors.
- trip on sidewalk: person drinking? not, sidewalk flawed?
Persons and Contexts Influence Each Other
- Persons influence context when citizen efforts lead to improved police coverage.
- concerns the relationships of individuals with communities and societies. By integrating research with action, it seeks to understand and enhance quality of life for individuals, communities, and societies.
- actively involved in community processes while also attempting to understand and explain them.
First Order Change
- alters, rearranges, or replaces the individual members of a group; potentially resolving some aspects of a problem
- help individuals but problems persist because you do not address the larger picture
Social Disorganization Theory
The theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions, such as the family, school, church, and local government
- Changing relationships, shared goals, roles, rules, and power relationships
- Analysis of the problem taking into account these relationships and how they're contributing to the problem, not specific interventions.
Limits of Second-Order Change
- Problem resolution = a process
- New problems, challenges created with resolutions
Ecological Levels of analysis
- clarifies the differing values, goals, and strategies for intervention associated with each level of analysis
- interaction between systems
- clarify how single problems have multiple causes
- closest to the individual and involving the most face-to-face contact
- less immediate to the person yet having broad efects
- Russian nesting doll
- each individual exists within layers of contexts
-Proximal systems are nested within broader more distal systems
- Does NOT account for relationships among levels
- each person is involved in systems at multiple ecological levels
- influences environments and relationships, they influence the indv.
- environments in which the person repeatedly engages in direct, personal interaction with others; ie classrooms, friendship networks, families
-indvs form interpersonal relationships, assume social roles, and share activities
-social units with own dynamics
-members have roles, differential power in making decisions
-important sources of support, but also conflict
- not simply a physical place but an enduring set of relationships among individuals that may be associated with one or several places
- ie coffee shops, changing place, for a meeting; still the 'setting' diff place
- larger than microsystems and have formal structure: title, mission, bylaws, meetings, etc
- important forms of community in that they affect who people associate with, resources available, etc - schools, health care
-often consist of smaller microsystems
-not sum of parts, dynamics of whole organization and informal 'culture' important
- can be part of larger social units
- have governments, local economies, media, systems of social, educational, and health services
- sets of organizations or microsystems.
-indv participate in locality through smaller groups; cannot influence alone
-largest level of analysis in system
- societies, cultures, political parties, social movements, corporations
- exercise influence through promoting ideologies and social norms
- form contexts within which the other levels function; ie economic climate
- defined by a broadly shared characteristic; ie gender, race, ethnicity, nationality
- Peter Berger, John Neuhaus
- settings that can assist individuals coping with society's stressors
- schools, mutual help groups
Error of Logical Typing
- taking action at the wrong level of analysis eg taking individual approach to reduce homelessness
Individual and Family Wellness
- strengthening families can promote indv wellness
- places in ecological context
- physical and psych health, including personal well-being and attainment of personal goals
- indicators: psych distress, social-emotional skills, personal well-being, life satisdaction
- health of communities and societies
Sense of Community
-perceptions of belongingness, interdependence, and mutual commitment that links individuals in a collective unity
- balances the value of indv/family wellness
- not always positive, in/out
Respect for Human Diversity
- recognizes and honors the variety of communities and social identities based on gender, ethnic or racial identity, nationality etc.
- Persons/comm diverse, defy generalizations, must be understood on own terms
- Psychs must understand the traditions of culture/distinct community, appreciate strengths resources, and adapt research methods
- the fair, equitable allocation of resources, opportunities, obligations, and power in society as a whole
- most concerned with advocacy and changes in public attitude
- allocation of resources among members of a population
- outcomes of a program or social policy
- concerns whether processes of collective decision making include a fair representation of citizens;
- how things are planned
Empowerment and Citizen Participation
- empowerment is aimed toward enhancing the possibilities for people to control their own lives
- a process that works across multiple levels; gaining access to resources and exercising power
- emphasizes democratic processes of making decisions that allow all member of a community to have meaningful involvement
- must be balanced with values of sense of community, social justice, and respect for diversity
Collaboration and Community Strengths
- making community strengths available
- comm psychs search for personal and community strengths and promote change; add to structures existing in a community
- collaboration best pursued where psychologist and community share common values
- integrating research with community action, basing action in empirical research findings whenever possible
- uses research to make community action more effective and makes research more valid for understanding communities
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