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65 terms

chapter 18

The French revolution and Napoleon
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The French revolution and the beginning of a new United States of America both happened in what year?
1789
What caused the French Revolution?
long range problems and immidiate forces
French society was based on what?
inequality (like feudalism)
France was divided into what?
estates
About how many people made up the first estate?
130,000
What were the clergy (first estate) exempt from?
the taille, France's chief tax.
The second estate was called what?
the nobility, they had leading positions in the state and had their own privileges
How many people did the nobility have?
350,000
What did the nobles want?
to increase their power at the expense of the monarchy
The third estate were the commoners or
98% of the population
How was the 3rd estate divided?
occupation, education and wealth
The Burgeoisie
middle class. 8% of the population
What was the immediate cause of the French revolution?
the near collapse of the government
How many years did the French economy suffer?
for about 50 years
What did the government spend its money on?
wars and court luxuries
What was Queen Antoinette known for?
her extravagance and spending money.
What did the members of the 3rd estate want?
to set up a constitutional government -to abolish the tax exemptions of the clergy and the nobility
What happened when the 3rd estate was locked out of its meeting?
moved to a tennis court and drafted its own constitution. then made an oath and it was called the Tennis Court oath
What was the national assemblies first act?
to destroy all relics of feudalism or aristocratic privileges
The Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen proclaimed what?
the rights for all men to be in office based on talent and a end of tax exemption
Who wrote the rights of women?
olympe de gouges
What did the assembly constitution do?
set up a limited monarchy with a king and a legislative assembly with the pwer to make laws
Who were other European monarchs?
the rulers of Austria and Prussia threatend to help.
What did defeats in economic shortages lead to?
new political demonstrations
sans culottes
ordinary people that made up of working class and the poor who were the elite of their neighborhood
Who did Sans-Culottes seek revenge on?
those who aided the king and resisted the popular will. - thousands of people were arrested and massacred
Jean-Paul Marat
published the radical journal Friend Of The People. He argued that the poor had the right to take from the rich even by violence
National Convention in 1792
first act was to end the monarchy and establish the french republic
Charlotte Croday
stabbed Girondin to death in his bath tub
What were France's domestic problems
a split in national convention, prior commune pressure
Maximilien Robespierre
led the national confention. was a lawyer and was known for his honesty
France was to Catholic to be what?
dechristanized
to save the republic from foren nationathe committee of public saftey did what?
called a universal mobilization in 1793
what happend after Robespirre's death what happend?
the terror ended and the more radical jacobins lost power
what was the constitution of 1795?
established a legislative assembly of two chambers, the council of 500 and the council of electors
Napoleon Bonaparte
doninated european history from 1799-1815.
in 1802 and 1804 what did nopoliean do?
crowned himself king and made himself council for life
what was noploieans most famous acheevement?
codifying french laws
what was the most important part of the new unified codes?
the civil code or napoleonic code
napoleonic code was what
reconised equality before the law and the right to choose a profession religious toleration and the end of serfdon and feudalism.
napoleons cival code undid revolutionary changes such as what
divorsealowing childeren including daughters to inhearit property. but made it harder for women to devorice
Napoliean created a new aristocracy based on what
merit
what did the cival code reconize?
equality of all citizens before the law and open government careers to more people.
George danton
led the sans culottes
Urban mountain group
...
the directory
held executive power in france
coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
Royalist
support a king or royal agreement
elector
an especially qualified voter
council of 500
a council that advises the king
golden youth
where all the misguided children go to get help
Vendemiaire
First month of the year starting Sept 22 to Oct 21
Republic of Virtue
a time in French history when Robespierre remained in power
relics of feudalism
a type of gov practiced in the middle ages
Reign ofTerror
a time that was bad during the revolution
Jacobin
a member of a radical soiety or club
Girdondins
political faction in France - with the legistlative assembly
factions
a group or click within a larger group
sans culottes
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Universal male sufferage
all adult males have the right to vote
Gerat Fear
a vast panic that spread quickly through France
Estates general
was the new French parliament
Bourgeoisie
the middle class
taille
france's tax
Bastille
a prison in Paris