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57 terms

Skeletal System Terms

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sternum
breastbone
periosteum
a tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers the outside of the bone
epiphysis
end of long bone
diaphysis
bone shaft
medullary canal
hollow region in bone shaft which acts as a storage area for bone marrow
red marrow
flexible tissue found mostly in flat and long bones, produces red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells
yellow marrow
mostly fatty tissue found in long bones, can be converted back to red marrow if the body needs it, produces some white cells
osteocyte
mature bone cell
appendicular skeleton
the bones of the shoulders, arms, hips, legs, and pelvis
axial skeleton
the bones of the head, chest, and back
ossification
formation of bone in the body, also known as osteogenesis
endosteum
a lining inside the medullary canal and spongy bone tissues
articular cartilage
a thin layer of flexible connective tissue covering the epiphysis to absorb shock where two bones meet to form a joint
osteoblast
immature bone cell that secretes calcium and other minerals to form new bones
fontanels
"soft spots" of cartilage in the newborn skull, giving space for the skull to enlarge as the brain grows; usually close between 18-24 months of age.
cranium
8 cranial bones of the skull which protect the brain
facial bones
14 bones of the skull which protect and support the eyes, ears, nose and mouth
suture lines
fibrous connective tissue joints that hold the bony plates of the cranium together
sinuses
air spaces in and around the facial bones
vertebrae
the 26 bones in the spinal columm (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx)
coccyx
tailbone
costae
ribs (7 pairs of true ribs, 5 pairs of false ribs)
thorax
chest cavity
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
shoulder bone
ileum, ischium, pubis
3 hip bones, fused together
ligament
a tough, whitish band of connective tissue which holds bones together (bone to bone)
joint
an area where two or more bones connect; an articulation
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic autoimmune disease affecting connective tissue, especially in joints, causing pain, swelling and deformity
osteoarthritis
degenerative form of arthritis in which the joint wears out due to aging, injury, or trauma
sprain
torn ligament
dislocation
a bone is displaced from a joint
fracture
a crack or break in the bone
greenstick fracture
the bone is bent and split but does not completely break, fibers separate lengthwise
simple fracture
the bone breaks completely but does not pierce through the skin (also called a closed fracture)
compound fracture
the bone breaks completely and pierces through the skin (also called an open fracture)
comminuted fracture
the bone splinters into more than two pieces
hemopoiesis
the production of red blood cells
osteoprogenitor
a type of stem cell which can turn into other types of cells as needed, in this case into osteoblasts
osteoclast
a type of cell that breaks down old or damaged bone material and helps return stored minerals to the blood stream
osteoporosis
condition of decreasing bone density, primarily due to aging
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone caused by infection
Calcium
mineral stored in the bones, bones may release for use by the body
Scoliosis
condition where the spine may curve from side to side
arthritis
painful inflammation of the joints
kyphosis
abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
mandible
lower movable jaw bone, used for chewing
Femur
largest and strongest bone in the body
ball and socket
this is the type of joint that allows the greatest freedom of movement
rotation
allows a bone to move around a central axis, like the head moving from side to side
sprain
wrenching of a joint, producing a stretching or laceration of ligaments
extension
the act of increasing the angle of two bones
synovial fluid
the fluid that reduces friction during joint movement
hemopoesis
process of blood cell formation in the red bone marrow of bones
suture
immovable joint, where cranial bones join together
lordosis
medical term for swayback