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Educational Psych - Exam 2
Terms in this set (136)
Long-term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience.
General theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior.
Particular way of thinking about and mentally responding to a certain event or piece of information.
Mental process in which a learner takes many separate pieces of information and uses them to build an overall understanding or interpretation.
Theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, ,owl edge from their experiences.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on how people, as individuals, construct meaning from their experiences.
Study of how various brain structures and functions are related to human learning and behavior.
Information processing theory
Theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which learners mentally think about, or process, new information and events.
Ability to mentally save something that has been previously learned; also, the mental "location" where such information is saved.
Process of putting new information into memory.
Changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory.
Process of finding information previously stored in memory.
Component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time (two or three seconds at most, depending on the modality).
Focusing on mental processing on a particular stimuli.
Component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time.
Component of the human memory system that oversees the flow of information throughout the system.
Rapid repetition of a small amount of information to keep it fresh in working memory.
Cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places on working memory at any one time; includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about the specific cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they're studying.
Component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time.
Star-shaped brain cell hypothesized to be involved in learning and memory; has chemically mediated connections with many other astrocytes and with neurons.
Degree to which something in memory is being actively attended to and mentally processed.
Knowledge concerning the nature of how things are, were, or will be.
Knowledge concerning how to do something (e.g., a skill).
Knowledge concerning appropriate ways to respond (physically or mentally) under various circumstances.
Knowledge that a person is consciously aware of and can verbally describe.
Knowledge that a person cannot consciously recall or explain but that nevertheless affects the person's thinking or behavior.
Mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common.
Tightly organized set of facts about a specific topic.
Schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity.
Integrated set of concepts and principles developed to explain a particular phenomenon.
Learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it.
Cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over within a short timeframe (typically a few minutes or less) as a possible way of learning and remembering it.
Cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know.
Cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know.
Cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces of information they need to learn (e.g., by forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-and-effect relationships).
Diagram of concepts and their interrelationships; used to enhance the learning and memory of a topic.
Process of forming a mental picture of an object or idea.
One's existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general.
Prior knowledge activation
Process of reminding learners of what they already know relative to a new topic.
Meaningful learning set
Attitude that one can make sense of the information one is studying.
Meaningfully learned and well-integrated knowledge about a topic, including many logical connections among specific concepts and ideas.
Memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember one or more specific pieces of information.
Word or phrase that forms a logical connection, or cognitive "bridge," between two pieces of information.
Mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects (keywords) that either sound similar to or symbolically represent those ideas.
Superimposed meaningful structure
Familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information to facilitate recall.
Belief that is inconsistent with commonly accepted and well-validated explanations of phenomena or events.
Significant revision of an existing theory or belief system, enabling new and discrepant information to be better understood and explained.
Tendency to seek information that confirms rather than discredits current beliefs.
Situated learning and cognition
Knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited or no retrieval and use in other contexts.
Learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged.
Ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task.
Stems that provides guidance about where to "look" for a piece of information in long-term memory.
Length of time a teacher pauses, either after asking question or hearing a student's comment, before saying something further.
Neurological process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain; often takes several hours, sometimes even longer.
Gradual weakening of information stored in long-term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently or not at all.
Phenomenon whereby something stored in long-term memory inhibits one's ability to remember something else correctly.
Construction of a logical but incorrect "memory" by combining information retrieved from one's long-term memory with one's general knowledge and beliefs about the world.
Complex cognitive processes
Cognitive process that involves going well beyond information specifically learned (e.g., by analyzing, applying, or evaluating it).
Knowledge and beliefs about the nature of human cognitive processes (including one's own), as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory.
One or more cognitive processes used intentionally for a particular learning task.
Learning strategy that is at least partially evident in a learner's behavior (e.g., taking notes during a lecture).
Learning strategy that is strictly mental (rather than behavioral) in nature and thus cannot be directly observed by others.
Process of checking oneself to verify understanding and memory of newly acquired information.
Illusion of knowing
Thinking that one knows something that one actually does not know.
Process of occasionally stopping to verbalized to oneself (and hence to better understand) material being read or studied.
Process of asking oneself questions as a way of checking understanding a topic.
Belief about the nature of knowledge or knowledge acquisition.
Phenomenon in which something a person has learning at one time affects how the person learns or performs in a later situation.
Phenomenon in which something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time.
Phenomenon in which something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time.
Instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task overlap in content.
Instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task are different in content.
View of transfer suggesting that the study of rigorous subject matter enhances one's ability to learn other, unrelated things.
Classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world.
Culture of transfer
Learning environment in which applying school subject matter to new situations, cross-disciplinary contexts, and the real-world problems is both the expectation and the norm.
Using existing knowledge and skills to address an unanswered question or troubling situation.
Problem in which the goal is clearly stated, all the information needed to solve the problem is present, and only one correct answer exists.
Problem in which the desired goal is unclear, some information needed to solve the problem is missing, and/or several possible solutions to the problem exist.
Inclination to encode a problem in a way that excludes potential solutions.
Prescribed sequence of steps that guarantee a correct problem solution.
General strategy that facilitates problem solving but doesn't always yield a solution.
Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex problem similar to one that might exist in the outside world.
Intelligent tutoring system
Computer software program that provides individually tailored instruction and practice, plus ongoing guidance and feedback, related to a particular topic and set of skills.
New and original behavior that yields a productive and culturally appropriate result.
Process of pulling together several pieces of information to draw a conclusion or solve a problem.
Process of mentally moving in a variety of directions from a single idea.
Question that requires students to use previously learned information in a new way-- that is, to engage in complex cognitive processes.
Process of evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines and reasoning.
Theoretical perspective that focuses on people's collective efforts to impose meaning on the world.
Theoretical perspective emphasizing the importance of society and culture in promoting learning and development.
Mediated learning experience
Discussion between an adult and a child in which the adult helps the child make sense of an event they are mutually experiencing.
Community of learners
Class in which teachers and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn.
Behaviors and belief systems of a long-standing social group.
General, culturally based set of assumptions about reality that influence understandings of a wide variety of phenomena.
Community of practice
Group of people who share common interests and goals and regularly interact and coordinate their efforts in pursuit of those interests and goals.
Legitimate peripheral participation
Initially participating at the fringe of a community of practice as a way of gaining knowledge and skills related to the group's typical ways of doing things.
Very large, during social group that has fairly explicit social and economic structures and collective institutions and activities.
Possession of different areas of expertise by various members of a social group, such that members must rely on one another to maximize their personal and collective performance and success.
Classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex problem similar to one that might exist in the outside world.
Activity that promotes learning and development through contributing to the betterment of others and the outside community.
Instruction and learning that occur largely or entirely within the context of digital technologies.
Technology-based instruction in which students are at a location physical separate from that of their instructor.
Knowledge and skills that lay a foundation for reading and writing; typically develops from early experiences with written language.
Ability to hear the distinct sounds of which spoken words are comprised.
Writing about ideas in a manner that intentionally helps the reader comprehend them.
Writing ideas in whatever they come to mind, with little regard for communicating the ideas effectively.
Knowledge and skills that help a learner find, use, evaluate, organize, and present information about a particular topic.
Physical or symbolic representation of a phenomenon or system that depicts its key components and important interrelationships.
Inability to master basic reading skills in a developmentally typical time frame despite normal reading instruction; often has biological roots.
Theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships.
Specific object of event that influences and individual's learning or behavior.
Specific behavior that an individual exhibits.
Term commonly used by behaviorists for learning; typically involves specific environmental events leading to the acquisition of specific responses.
Occurrence of two or more events (e.g., two stimuli, or a stimulus and a response) at approximately the same time.
Form of learning in which a new, involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented close together in time.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning.
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Response that is elicited by a particular (unconditioned) stimulus without prior learning.
Stimulus that does not elicit any particular response.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Stimulus that begins to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning.
Conditioned response (CR)
Response that begins to be elicited by a particular (conditioned) stimulus through classical conditioning.
Phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus; in classical conditioning, involves making a conditioned response to a stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus.
Gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in classical conditioning, results from repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
Learning process in which a response either increases or decreases as a result of being followed by either reinforcement or punishment, respectively.
Consequence (stimulus) of a response that increases the frequency of the response it follows; the act of following a response with a reinforcer is known as reinforcement.
Consequence (stimulus) that decreases the frequency of the response it follows.
Learning process in which a response increases as a result of being followed by reinforcement; is one form of instrumental conditioning.
Situation in which one event happens only after another event has already occurred; one event is contingent on the other's occurrence.
Consequence that satisfies a biologically built-in need.
Consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer.
Consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than the removal) of a stimulus.
Phenomenon in which learners do less-preferred activities in order to engage in more-preferred activities.
Reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner.
Reinforcer that is provided by the learner or inherent in the task being performed.
Consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.
Delay of gratification
Ability to forego small, immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on.
Punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner finds unpleasant.
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