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Renaissance performances that combined music, dancing, and acting with expensive costumes and elaborate sets.


theater productions that combined music, dance, and storytelling in a light-hearted way.

Music halls

entertainment centers that offered an evening full of songs, skits, and comedy.

Concept album

an album that tells a story or explores a theme. All of the songs focus on the same idea, and could be performed as a musical


"shirtless ones," Argentineans who lived in poverty, lacked education for their children, access to health care, and jobs with safe working conditions.

United Officers Group

Secret Argentinian military organization which staged a coup and overthrew the original Argentinean government in 1943


a sudden violent overthrown of a government


home of the Roman Catholic Church

The Perónists

Argentineans who support Eva Perón's legacy of social justice.

ancien regime

the traditional power of the absolute monarchy and elites in France before the revolution


a style of writing that focuses on the lives of ordinary people.


a stage spectacle defined by expensive special effects, a large cast, and catchy tunes.


musicals (and operas) with little to no dialogue. The music plays nonstop, and songs are connected by repeated themes.


designed to get an army moving, has two strong beats per measure.

Domino Theory

Idea that a country's fall to communism would lead other countries in the region to fall

First Indochina War

War between Vietnamese and French occupiers.

1954 Geneva Accords

Peace agreement ending the First Indochina War.

17th Parallel North

Latitude where Vietnam was divided into communist North and capitalist South

Paris Peace Accords

1973 peace agreement brokering a truce in Vietnam

Proxy wars

battles fought indirectly by supporting opposite sides in foreign conflicts

Bui doi

"The dust of life": children born to Vietnamese mothers and American fathers

Amerasian Homecoming Act of 1987

Act that granted American visas to any Vietnamese with "Amerasian facial features."


Lyrics sung with the rhythm of ordinary speech, without melody or repetition. Used to convey dialogue or plot.


Lyrics sung to a melody. Used to convey an intense emotion or to express a character's personality or outlook.


passing the blame to someone else


using mockery to make a point, often employs exaggeration, parody, irony, and sarcasm to encourage reform in politics


device that allows parents to restrict what children watch


using over-the-top ridicule to criticize something. It often exaggeratedly copies its object of ridicule.


a stirring song (like a national anthem that expresses the outlook of a group or cause)

satiric norm

desired behavior change of a movie

Juvenalian satire

Mean satire

Horatian satire

satire that is kinder and gentler


the substance an artist uses to create art, like print, television, and radio


pictures and words pasted together after being cut out from print media such as magazines and newspapers.


pieces of a shot

In camera

videos created with real sets and puppets superimposed in front of computer-animated backgrounds.


a portion of a song that contrasts with the main tune and usually reflects on the previous section or transitions into a concluding section


the catchy words of the title repeated throughout the video

Cultural relativism

acknowledging that people are different and argues there is no single moral code that everyone in the world should adopt.

nature vs.nurture debate

asks whether people's personalities and abilities are mainly genetic or learned.


characters that contrast with each other

Cardwell Reforms

reforms that modernizes the British military by
reducing terms of service, ending corporeal punishment, and ending Purchase

opera seria

serious opera

Comic opera

opera that uses humor, satire, and parody to mock traditional opera and, contemporary politics using silly situations, ordinary characters, and catchy tunes.


songs that use a fast tempo, alliteration, and tongue-twisting text to produce a comic effect.


rhymes that are multi-syllabic rhymes that match on the first syllable and also rhyme subsequent syllables.

Studio System

A system where all aspects of film production and distribution were controlled and often owned by a single major studio.


organized anti-Jewish mob attacks that are sanctioned by the Russian government in the 1905.


villages in Eastern Europe with large Jewish communities


Language of Ashkenazi Jews, written in Hebrew characters and combining words and syntax from German and Hebrew and other languages


idea that people should make decisions based on their own inclinations rather than on tradition.

con artist

a person who tricks others out of their money

Status Quo

"the existing situation" or "the way things are right now"


An attempt, often by a salesperson or entrepreneur, to convince you to buy something.

New Media

Internet versions of traditional media, such as film, images, music, and writing.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws that legalize racism in America in the 1900s


the separation of blacks and whites


youths who were counterculture in everything from their politics to clothing and taste in music (fans of jazz)

Folk music

Music that speaks to the daily life and struggles of groups of people. Passed down through oral traditions, and does not belong to any particular composer or musician.


songs that tell a story

Zip lines

lines that stretch across the stage on an incline. A pulley runs across them, so an actor suspended from the pulley can mimic flying.

Googie architecture

buildings that evoke the space race through curved shapes and the use of glass, steel, and neon lighting.

Glam rock

music style that evolved out of the space race, it combines complicated, conceptual music with an elaborate visual style


a technology using two different channels of sound to make it seem the music is coming from different directions.


a synthesizer played by pressing a pencil-like stylus tip to metal keys, which closes an electric circuit and creates a sound.


song that contains verses mixed with a repeating chorus or refrain.


songs uses a sequence of different notes that sound pleasant together


bits and pieces of language, recorded by various artists


an ideal society based on principles designed to minimize the society's negative impact on the environment

Sectarian violence

violence that happens between two sects of the same larger group

tsundere character

a stock character of anime who alternates between being tsuntsun, or disgusted, and deredere, loving

Summer of Love

The summer of 1967, where tens of thousands of hippies flocked to the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco with their message of peace, love, and drugs.

Long, Hot Summer

The summer of 1967 where over 100 African Americans died in race riots all over America

Atlas ikat

traditional clothing the material of Uzbekistan, woven with threads repeatedly dyed , creating a pattern

The Troubles

Period in the twentieth century where the two sects of Christians fought for several decades

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