72 terms

AP Bio Unit 5: Metabolism

Ullrey, FJA, biology, ap, cells, etc.

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Number of ATP generated from one FADH2
Number of ATP generated from one NADH
A major player in the digestion of carbohydrates:

(A) Amylase
(B) Pepsin
(C) Bile salts
(D) Lipase
(E) Bile
A. Amylase
a major player in the digestion of proteins that is released in the stomach:

(A) Amylase
(B) Pepsin
(C) Bile salts
(D) Lipase
(E) Bile
B. Pepsin
A student conducts an experiment to test the efficiency of an enzyme. Which of the following protocols would probably not result in a change of the enzymeʼs efficiency?

(A) Raising the temperature of the experimental from 20C to 50C
(B) Adding an acidic solution to the setup
(C) Adding substrate but not enzyme
(D) Placing the substrate and enzyme in a container with double the capacity
(E) Adding enzyme but not substrate
C. adding substrate will not change efficiency
All of these are functions of enzymes EXCEPT:

(A) they lower activation energy
(B) they are catalysts
(C) they change ∆G
(D) they are affected by pH
(E) they are affected by temperature
C. enzymes do not affect deltaG
An enzyme speeds up chemical reactions by:

(A) giving up electrons in reduction reactions
(B) gaining electrons in oxidation reactions
(C) acting as a reactant to form new products
(D) acting as a catalyst by loosening chemical bonds
(E) acting as a substrate and being used up in the reaction
D. acting as a catalyst by loosening chemical bonds
An individual has a disease that reduces the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Which of the following of probably true of this individual?

(A) Oxygen delivery to cells is compromised
(B) Cell repair is compromised
(C) Cells experience O2 buildup
(D) organism has limited defense against viral invasions
(E) organism has reduced # of platelets
A. Hemoglobin helps with O2 delivery to cells
investment of ATP to build chemical bonds
At which of the following points in the human circulation does blood have the least oxygen?

(A) As it leaves the left ventricle
(B) As it enters the left atrium
(C) As it leaves the lungs
(D) As it leaves the right ventricle
(E) As it ascends the vena cava
D. blood has the least amount of O2 as it leaves right ventricle
AV valve
prevents backflow into atria during ventricular contraction
Blood pressure fraction
Systolic over Diastolic
blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart?
blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart?
1-cell thick, diffusion, exchange of materials between blood and cells
break-down of chemical bonds
Chemiosmosis occurs in the:
I. Mitochondria
II. Nuclei
III. Chloroplasts

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and III
(E) I, II, and III
D. Chemiosmosis is in mitochondria AND chloroplasts
Closed circulatory system
blood is confined to vessels and interstitial fluid are separate
competitive inhibitor
binds to active site, prevents substrate from binding there
Describe the structure of ATP molecule (2009:2a)
Adenosine and 3 Phosphate groups
Adenosine is just Adenine bound to Ribose
relaxed phase, atria refill with blood
During complete aerobic cellular respiration, each molecule of glucose broken down can yield about 36 ATP. What conditions might lead to a decrease in amount of ATP produced?

(A) An increase in the amount of glucose added to the system
(B) A decrease in the amount of light the system is exposed to
(C) A decrease in the amount of O2 available in the system
(D) A decrease in the amount of CO2 available in the system
(E) An increase in the amount of ADP in the system
C. less O2 in = less ATP out
During which type of reaction is energy consumed?

(A) Hydrolysis
(B) Catabolic
(C) Oxidation-reduction
(D) Endergonic
(E) Exergonic
D. Endergonic RXNs require energy investment
exergonic reaction
RXNs that RELEASE energy
feedback inhibition
final product inhibits enzyme early on, so it cant catalyze further reactions
Highest pressure of circulating blood is found in a(n)

(A) Arteriole
(B) Artery
(C) Capillary
(D) Vein
(E) Venule
B. arteries have highest blood pressure
If an inhibitor is able to bind to the active site and block the attachment of the substrate, this is an example of:

(A) Non-competitive inhibition
(B) Competitive inhibition
(C) A cofactor
(D) A coenzyme
(E) Induced fit
B. competitive inhibition
In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is:

II. O2
V. H2
II. final electron acceptor is O2
inputs of citric acid cycle
2 Acetyl CoA, 2 ADP, (P)i, 6 NAD+, 2 FAD
inputs of fermentation
2 pyruvate, 2 NADH
inputs of glycolysis
Glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 4 ADP, (P)i
inputs of oxidative phosphorylation
10 NADH+, H+, 2 FADH2, O2, 34 ADP, (P)i
Most of the carbon dioxide of our body travels through the blood in the form of

I. CO2
V. C6H12O6
noncompetitive inhibitor
binds to site other than active site; alters shape of enzyme
Open circulatory system
no separation between blood & interstitial fluid
outputs of citric acid cycle
2 CoA, 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 6H+, 2 FADH2
outputs of fermentation
2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 2 ethanol, 2 CO2 or 2 Lactate
outputs of glycolysis
2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2 Water, 2 NADH, 2H+
outputs of oxidative phosphorylation
10 NAD+, 2 FAD, 34 ATP, Water
oxidation reaction
RXNs in which reactants LOSE electrons / energy
oxidative phosphorylation
ETC & Chemiosmosis
Oxygen-poor blood enters the heart through which of the atria and ventricles?
Right is oxygen poor
Oxygen-rich blood enters the heart throught which of the atria and ventricles?
Left is oxygen rich
addition of a phosphate group, leading to activity
Produces the electron carries NADH and FADH2 that will be oxidized during the electron transport chain.

(A) Glycolysis
(B) Chemiosmosis
(C) Fermentation
(D) Krebs Cycle
(E) Calvin cycle
D. Krebs Cycle
redox reactions
RXNs that transfer electrons from one reactant to another
RXNs in which reactants GAIN electrons / energy
Semilunar valves
prevent backflow; are in the arteries leaving the heart
contraction; when ventricles pump blood OUT
The greatest number of chambers in found in the heart of a(n)

(A) Amphibian
(B) Bird
(C) Fish
(D) Reptile
(E) Shark
B. birds have 4 chambers
The major emulsifier of fats

(A) Amylase
(B) Pepsin
(C) Bile salts
(D) Lipase
(E) Bile
C. Bile salts
The major player in the digestion of fats

(A) Amylase
(B) Pepsin
(C) Bile salts
(D) Lipase
(E) Bile
D. Lipase
The movement of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane during chemiosmosis of cellular respiration is an example of what type of movement across a membrane?

(A) Active transport
(B) Facilitated diffusion
(C) The work of a symport
(D) The work of an anti port
(E) Cotransport
B. facilitated diffusion
This process couples ATP production w/ movement of electrons down the ETC by harnessing the driving force created by the proton gradient.

(A) Glycolysis
(B) Chemiosmosis
(C) Fermentation
(D) Krebs Cycle
(E) Calvin cycle
B. Chemiosmosis
This process leads to the net production of two pyrvate, two ATP, and two NADH.

(A) Glycolysis
(B) Chemiosmosis
(C) Fermentation
(D) Krebs Cycle
(E) Calvin cycle
A. Glycolysis
pump blood OUT
What are 2 processes that need ATP?
Active transport
(protein pumps require the energy of ATP hydrolysis to activate and start shuffling ions and other materials.)

Chromosomal movement
(is powered by microtubule-based motors, which use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to generate force.)
What is the function of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration?

(A) To break a large free-energy drop into smaller energy-releasing steps
(B) To make ATP
(C) To store electrons for use in Krebs cycle
(D) To convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA
(E) To return Krebs cycle enzymes to the matrix
A. purpose of the ETC is "to let the blow of lost energy fall by degrees"
What source of energy does ATP synthase use to generate ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate in cellular respiration?

(A) Light energy
(B) Fermentation
(C) Chemiosmosis of H+
(D) Enzymes
(E) Glycolysis
C. Chemiosmosis of H+
When ATP is used for transport, mechanical, or chemical work,

(A) its the adenosine that performs the work
(B) the phosphorylates that perform the work
(C) It is the precursor ADP that performs the work
(D) It is the energy released when ATP leaves the mitochondria that performs the work
(E) It is the ADP that combines with the AMP to perform the work
B. the phosphorylates do most work
When oxygen becomes unavailable, this process regenerates NAD+, allowing respiration to continue:

(A) Glycolysis
(B) Chemiosmosis
(C) Fermentation
(D) Krebs Cycle
(E) Calvin cycle
C. Fermentation
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
cristae & thylakoids
Which of the following is a characteristic of arteries?

A. They have valves to prevent back flow
B. They carry blood away from the heart
C. Blood is kept moving by voluntary muscle contraction
D. They are thin-walled blood vessels
E. They always carry oxygenated blood.
B. arteries carry blood AWAY from heart
Which of the following is NOT a net product of glycolysis or the Krebs cycle?

(A) Pyruvate
(D) CO2
(E) NAD+
E. NAD+ not a product of glycolysis OR krebs cycle
Which of the following is NOT associated with carbohydrates?

(A) Amylase
(B) Cellulose
(C) Pepsin
(D) Chitin
(E) Insulin
C. Pepsin
Which of the following is not expelled from the pancreatic duct?

(A) Lipase
(B) Amylase
(C) Pepsin
(D) Trypsin
(E) Chymotrypsin
C. Pepsin not from pancreas
Which of the following is the most direct result of the presence of protein in the small intestine?

(A) The secretion of bile by the gallbladder
(B) The secretion of pepsin by the lining of the small intestine
(C) The activation of the inactive form of trypsin and chymotrypsin
(D) The activation of the inactive form of lipase
(E) Peristalsis along the walls of the small intestine
C. activation of trypsin & chymotrypsin
Which of the following reactions leads to the cramp sensation felt in muscles during intense exercise?

(A) Glycolysis
(B) Alcoholic fermentation
(C) Lactic acid fermentation
(D) Krebs cycle
(E) Oxidative phosphorylation
C. Lactic acid fermentation causes cramps
Which of the following reactions occurs in the mitochondria?

(A) Fermentation
(B) Glycolysis
(C) Calvin cycle
(D) Krebs cycle
(E) Light reactions
D. Krebs Cycle occurs in mitochondria
Which of the following results in the creation of the most ATP?

(A) Krebs cycle
(B) Substrate-level phosphorylation
(C) Oxidative phosphorylation
(D) Fermentation
(E) Glycolysis
C. Oxidative phosphorylation produces approx. 36-38 ATP
Cellular Respiration equation
1 Glucose + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP