Departments, agencies, bureaus and offices that perform the functions of government.
The development by executive bureaucracies of procedures and activities to carry out the policies and acted by the legislature.
The development by the bureaucracy of formal rules for implementing legislation.
Decision-making by bureaucracies as to whether or not an individual or organization has compiled with or violated government laws and/or regulations.
The ability of public agencies and employees to make decisions based on their own judgment so long as the decision is reasonable and lawful.
In government budget making, the tendency of bureaucrats and elected officials to focus on new programs and increases in spending, while seldom reviewing existing programs or previous levels of spending.
The general reference to the size of government, often measured by spending per capita and public employment per 10,000 population.
Selection of employees for government agencies on the basis of political loyalty and electoral support.
Selection of employees for government agencies on the basis of competence, with no consideration of an individual's political loyalties or support.
Affirmative action programs
And government agencies, efforts to achieve minority and gender representativeness in the workforce through preferential hiring and promotion.
Disputes between parties are submitted and decided by a neutral third-party.
State laws on the same subject are valid as long as they do not conflict with federal law on that subject.
Principle - agent problem
In government, the problem of ensuring that bureaucrats (agents) carry out the intentions of elected officials (principals), that the self interests of bureaucrats do not conflict with these intentions.
The theory that over time regulatory agencies come under the influence of the industries they are supposed to regulate.
The tendency of bureaucrats to expand their own hours, functions, staff and budgets.
Government selling many of its enterprises - for example, housing projects, airports, stadiums - to private individuals or firms who would operate them more efficiently and effectively.
A reform movement that encourages government bureaucracies to be more entrepreneurial, mission driven, results oriented, do you centralized and responsive to citizens' needs.
A method of budgeting that demands justification for the entire budget request of an agency, not just its requested increase in funding.
A management decision making system that considers both human capital and financial capital costs in making decisions.
Comparing and measuring policies, practices, philosophies and performance measures against those of other high-performing state or local governments.
A document prepared by the executive branch of government that estimates next year's revenue and proposes programs and the objects of expenditures; must be approved by the legislature.
An act of the legislature that authorizes executive agencies to spend a specific amount of money.
Zero sum game
The theory that for someone to win, someone must lose.
In government budgeting, the practice of allocating specific revenue sources to specific programs, such as gasoline taxes to highways.
In government spending, increases that cannot be easily limited because of prior commitments to existing programs or legal mandates.
Instead of focusing on an organizational unit, a budget is done by program or activity and includes performance to tie expenditures for each program to specific goals established for that program.
Revenues that fall below those estimated in the budget and force spending cuts during a fiscal year.