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64 terms

Botany Exam 1

STUDY
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Photosynthesis
Sunlight energy + CO2 => food
Monophyletic Group
Contains all descendants from a common ancestor
Science
Attempts to build a body of knowledge based on testable explanations and predictions
Ecology
The study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment
Ecosystem
All of the organisms that occur together at a particular places, as well as the environment with which they interact
Populations
Groups of organisms-all individuals belonging to the same taxonomic unit
Community
The set of all populations
Trophic Levels
Describe the ways that organisms interact
Autotrophs
Self-feeders
Heterotrophs
Organisms that feed on others
Decomposers
Break down waste and dead bodies
Mineral Budget
Determining gains/losses minerals
Result: Forest ecosystems are extremely efficient in conserving mineral elements
Deforested
4x runoff, 20x Ca and K
Nitrogen: decomposers still present leeching Nitrogen, levels of N in H2O now unsafe to drink
Competition
The interaction between 2 or more organisms when utilizing a required resource that is in limited supply
Mutualism
An interaction in which both species benefit
Competitive Exclusion
One or the other species must eventually be eliminated
Chemical Production
Inhibit the growth of other plants
Allelopathy
Inhibition of one species if plants by chemicals produced by another plant
Phytoalexins
Lipid-like compounds produced by plants in response to microbial attack
Produced in response to a signal elicitor
Tannins
Static-always present
Phenolics=denature proteins
disrupt cell membrane
Succession
The predictable change in a community over time
Predicts that a community can recover after a disturbance in a predictable manner
Biomes
Terrestrial communities characterized by their climate and soil
Shaped by temperature and precipitation
Rainforests
High temp and high rainfall year round, broad-leaved evergreen trees, epiphytes and lianas, the biome with the greatest diversity
Savannas and Deciduous Tropical Forests
High temp and seasonal drought, grasslands with scattered broad-leaved deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs, periodic burning is an important aspect
Deserts
Precipitation generally very low except for occasional peaks and max temp varies with type of desert, succulents such as cacti, adaptations include small leaves thick cuticle and photosynthetic rates with high maximum temperatures
Grasslands
Moderately low precipitation, cold winters and warm summers, perennial bunchgrasses and sod-forming grasses, heavily exploited for agriculture
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Moderate precipitation evenly distributed, cool winters and warm summers, deciduous trees and many perennial herbs, the dominant herbaceous plants vary with the seasons
Temperate Mixed and Coniferous Forests
Moderately low precipitation and moderately cold winters, mistures of deciduous trees and conifers
Mediterranean Scrub
Cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers, evergreen or summer-deciduous, drought resistant trees and shrubs in dense thickets
Taiga
Moderately low precipitation and cold winters, although in the Pacific Northwest the winters are very wet, forest of evergreen trees, soils are highly acidic and very low in nutrients, permafrost may be present
Arctic Tundra
Very low precipitation in both summer and winter, very cold winters, low shrubs, grasses, sedges, and lichens, permafrost present throughout, much of biomass is underground
Four Molecules of Life
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Polymers
Macromolecules made of many similar parts, monomer
Carbohydrates
Most abundant organic molecule in nature, used as primary storage of energy for all living organisms, used for energy support
Starch
Primary storage polysaccharide in plants
Glycogen
Long chains of glucose, highly branched
Structure
half organic C in living world is contained in cellulose, cellulose is a polymer of glucose, a few organisms can break down cellulose and use it as energy
Cellulose
Made entirely of Beta glucose
Lipids
Fat and fat-like molecules, generally hydrophobic (water insoluble), energy storage, 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Fats
Solid at room temperature
Oils
Liquid at room temperature
Triglycerides
Fat and oil
Proteins
4 levels of organization
1) Linear arrangement of amino acid
2) Interactions between side-chains
3) 3-D shape of a protein
4)When more than one protein interacts
Nucleic Acids
Polymer is a nucleic acid
Monomer is a nucleotide
used for energy, ATP
Chromoplasts
Pigmented plastids, not site of photosynthesis
Leucoplasts
Plastids- no pigments
Bulk Flow
Movement of a liquid from one place to another due to potential energy
The Cell Cycle
M phase, G1, S phase, G2
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein filaments that extend through cytosol
Microtubules
Made of tubulin
Microfilaments
Made of actin
Homologous Chromosomes
Similar in size and shape, containing similar kinds of hereditary info, one is from one parent and the other homologue is from the other parent
Genes
Unit of heredity
Allele
One or more alternatives of a gene
Locus
The physical location of a gene on a chromosome
Homozygous
Two alleles that are identical
Heterozygous
Two different alleles occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Genotype
The sum total of all genes in an individual
Phenotype
The physical appearance of an organism
Mendel's First Law
The Principle of Segregation: individuals carry pairs of genes for each trait and these pairs separate during meiosis
Mendel's Second Law
The Principle of Independent Assortment: the alleles of a gene segregate independently of the alleles of another gene
Epistasis
Occurs when one gene interacts with another
Polygenic Inheritance
Inherit characteristics determined by combined effect of multiple genes
Pleiotropy
When one gene affects more than on phenotype