a philosophical approach that influences a counselor's therapeutic practices (32). Central issues: freedom and responsibility - building therapy on basic condition of human spirit
According to the text, positive ethics is a practice in which counselors
base practice on what is best for the client not minimum standards (37)
In order for a therapist to communicate "accurate empathic understanding" the counselor must:
reflect the experience of the clients
In becoming an ethical practitioner, a crucial task is to
it is crucial that we do not meet our needs at the expense of our clients. (38)
As a result of the client/therapist relationship in psychoanalytic therapy
therapists is blank screen - very little self disclosure - clients make projections (69) "clients are able to find new modes of functioning that are no longer encumbered by the neurotic conflicts that once interfered with their lives" (71) aquire insights into the workings of their unconscious process
Culturally encapsulated counselors would be most likely to
dependent on your own culture - no one else's
The basic aim of psychoanalytic therapy is
The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at increasing awareness, fostering insights into the client's behavior, and understanding the meaning of symptoms (74)
You are working with an ethnic minority client who is silent during the initial phase of counseling. This silence is probably best interpreted as
thinking, evaluating, waiting for the therapist to take the lead or visa versa
Assessment is a useful method of
evaluating the relevant factors in a client's life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process.
Adlerians believe that first comes ____, then ____, and then
____. First we think, then feel, and then act (107) universal life tasks; building friendships (social task), establishing intimacy ( love, marriage task), contributing to society ( occupational task) (102)
In Gestalt therapy, the relationship between client and counselor is seen as
a person to person relationship
. The empty chair technique
one way of getting the client to externalize the interject goals; promote a higher level of integration between the polarities and conflicts that exist in everyone. 216
According to Gestalt theory, people use avoidance in order to
conceal or avoid coming into contact with the here and now experience
The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is
assisting the client to attain greater awareness, and with it, greater choice. 206 - initial goal is gaining awareness 198
. Both feminist therapists and postmodern therapists tend to view diagnosis as it is traditionally done:
continuing process that focuses on understanding the client
Which technique is considered essential in existential therapy?
Based on philosophical views about the essential nature of human existence - description, understanding, and exploration 151
In psychoanalytic therapy, how do clients work with their dreams?
clients free accosciate to some aspect of teh dream for the purpose of uncovering the laten meanings
The basic goal of existential psychotherapy is
The role of the counselor's personal values in therapy is best described as:
expose my values not impose them--- sharing self with client: will it help client - do not talk about it: say it in 3 brief sentence: I had an experience like that once..... What helped me was.... Do you think something like that might help you?
. In working within a multicultural framework, what is especially important?
1) beliefs and attitudes 2) knowledge 3) skills (25) assist clients in making decisions that are congruent with clients world view - not to live by therapists values (24)
Gestalt therapy is a form of
True statements about Alfred Adler?
Family - 6 boys and 2 girls; brother died next to him in bed; he was a sickly child almost died when he was 4; not a happy childhood; was pampered and then his little brother took favored place with mother. Felt inferior to little brother and peers, determined to overcome physical limitations; poor student- teacher told his father to advise him to be shoemaker; pushed himself to become top of class; theories used in training teachers; child guidance clinics
. Under what circumstances should a therapist consult with colleagues or specialists
Ethical dilemma or physical issues
The existential approach is
grounded in the assumption that we are free and therefore responsible for our choices and actions
The existential approach is particularly well-suited to clients who:
suffer grief or loss;facing developmental crisis or a transition in life and for those with existential concerns or seelikg personal enhancements
. The purpose of examining a client's family constellation is
It is a fallacy to assume children of same family are formed in same environment - psychological situation of each child is different from others due to birth order
. In the text, the main reason given for having counseling students receive some form of psychotherapy is to help them to:
become aware of their own sources of countertransference, including their biases, prejudices, and racial, or ethnic stereotypes
One of the limitations of the person-centered approach is that
.: unsuitable for working with clients from diverse cultures (185) lack of attention to proven techniques and strategies
The person-centered view of human nature
people are trustworthy, resourceful, capable of self-understanding, and self-direction, able to make constructive changes, and able to live effective, and productive lives ; an innate striving for self-actualization
Analytic therapy is oriented toward
Adlerian therapy has a phenomenological orientation
Thus, the therapist attempts to view the world: from the clients subjective frame of reference
The central issue in existential therapy is
increased awareness is the central goal of existential therapy - freedom - responsibility
. Clients have a right to be informed about:
their therapy and to make autonomous decisions about it (40) that their therapist may be discussing certain details of the relationship with a supervisor or a colleague (41)
In person-centered therapy assessment occurs
at clients request --- early on Rodgers recommended caution in using psychometric measures or taking complete case history at the outset of counseling (178)
. The goal(s) of Freudian psychoanalytic therapy is (are
2 goals of Freudian psychoanalytic therapy are to make the unconscious conscious and to strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings and irrational guilt.
. The techniques of psychoanalytic therapy are aimed at:
increasing awareness, fostering insights into the client's behavior, and understanding the meaning of symptoms.
standard psychoanalytic technique
1. Maintaining the analytic framework, 2. Free association, 3. Interpretation, 4. Dream analysis, 5. Analysis of resistance, 6. Analysis of transference
In Gestalt therapy, assessment is best conceived of as
could not find assessment in Gestalt therapy
A behavior therapist is most likely to focus on ____ in counseling Ruth.
don't know about Ruth
contributions of Adlerian therapy are
elementary education, consultation groups with teachers, parent education groups, couples and family therapy, group counseling
What is the most important factor related to progress in person-centered therapy?
Attitudes and personal characteristics of therapist and the quality of the client therapist relationship as the prime determinants of the outcome of the therapeutic process.
The process of encouragement in Adlerian counseling includes
showing faith, expecting them to assume responsibility, valuing them for what they are, 114 -it is a fundamental attitude not a technique
The goals of existential therapy are
self-awareness, freedom, identity, meaning, anxiety, death
. In Carl Rogers's view, diagnosis is considered:
diagnostic concepts and procedures were inadequate, prejudicial, and often misused.
The person-centered therapist is best described as
an instrument of change
The "fundamental rule" for the client in psychoanalysis is
process of free association
Existential therapy is best considered as
a way of thinking - a philosophical approach
An authentic counselor is best described as:
sincere, and honest - they do not hide behind masks, defenses, sterile roles, or facades
Effective psychotherapy is a practice in which
there is therapeutic interaction between counsleor and client