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ATI Chapter 12 Meningitis
Terms in this set (48)
Inflammation of the CSF and meninges, which are the connective tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord
Acute encephalopathy and fatty changes of the liver
Viral Meningitis usually requires what type of care for recovery?
What type of infection is bacterial meningitis?
The prognosis of bacterial meningitis depends on what?
How quickly people are treated
What are risk factors for viral meningitis?
Different types of viruses
Bacterial meningitis has had a decrease in the incidence of the infection because of what 2 vaccines?
Hib and PCV
What are 2 risk factors for bacterial meningitis?
1. Crowded living conditions
2. Direct access to CSF
What are 4 subjective signs for meningitis?
When is meningitis present in newborns?
Within a few days after birth
What are 5 clinical manifestations of meningitis in newborns?
1. Poor muscle tone
2. Weak cry
3. Poor suck
4. Refuses feeding
What does a newborn's neck look like with meningitis?
Supple without nuchal rigidity
What is a late sign of newborn meningitis?
What are the 6 clinical manifestations of 3months -2 year olds with meningitis?
1. Seizures with a high pitch cry 2. Fever and irritability
3. Bulging fontanels
4. Possible nuchal rigidity
5. Poor feeding
7.brudinski's and kernig's signs
What are the clinical manifestations of meningitis for 2 years - adolescents? (3)
2. Nuchal rigidity
3. Positive brudzinski's sign and kernig's sign
flexion of extremities occurring with deliberate flexion on the child's neck
resistance to extension of the child's leg from a flexed position
What type of rash is seen with a meningococcal infection?
Blood cultures are sometimes ______________ when the CSF culture is _____________
1. Positive 2. Negative
What does CSF look like in bacterial meningitis? (5)
1. Cloudy color
2. Elevated WBC
3. Elevated protein content
4. Decreased glucose content 5. Positive gram stain
What does CSF look like in viral meningitis? (5)
1. Clear color
2. Slightly elevated WBC
3. Normal or slightly elevated protein content
4. Normal glucose content
5. Negative gram stain
What is a definitive diagnostic test for meningitis?
Where is the lumbar puncture placed in a pt?
L3 L4 L5
What does lumbar puncture measure?
Spinal fluid pressure and collects CSF for analysis
What should EMLA cream be applied over the lumbar puncture site before a procedure?
45 min to 1 hour
Before a lumbar puncture, the nurse should have the child do what?
Empty the bladder
After the lumbar puncture procedure, the nurse should educate the patient o do what for 4-8 hours?
Lay flat to prevent leakage and a resulting spinal headache.
What type of precautions should the patient be put on with meningitis?
How should you position the patient with meningitis?
Without a pillow and slightly elevate the HOB
What drug therapy is used for bacterial meningitis?
What drugs are not indicated for viral meningitis?
Corticosteroids are most effective for reducing neurologic complications in children with infections caused by ________
When should children receive the Hib and PCV vaccines at what 3 ages?
2, 4, 6 months and then 12 and 15 months
What could increased ICP lead to?
What are signs for increased ICP in infants?(7)
1. Bulging fontanels
2. increased head circumference
3. High-pitched cry
4. Distended scalp veins
7. Respiratory changes
What are signs for increased ICP in children? (7)
1. Increased irritability
7. Respiratory changes
What 2 things does Reye syndrome cause?
1. Liver dysfunction
2. Cerebral edema
What causes reye syndrome?
It is unknown
When is the peak incidence of reye syndrome?
During flu season
What are the risk factors for reye syndrome?
There is a potential associate between using aspirin products for treating fevers caused by viral infections
Reye syndrome presents in clinical stages based on what?
Severity of liver and neurologic function
What are the clinical manifestations of reye syndrome? (8)
7. Profuse vomiting
What lab values are elevated for Reye's syndrome?
What lab values may be extended during Reye's syndrome?
What diagnostic test is done for Reye's syndrome?
How should the HOB be position in someone with Reye's syndrome?
What medication is used to decrease swelling in the brain in Reye's syndrome?
Why is vitamin K given to someone with Reye's syndrome?
Improves the synthesis of blood clotting factors in the liver
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