Mizzou Sociology 1000 Exam 2 with Professor Brent
Terms in this set (116)
regular patterns of social interaction and persistent social realtionship
expectations attached to positions
distribution of people among social positions
the distribution of social rewards
a socially recognized position in a social system. (by occuptaion, educations, age,race, gender, family position)
a status into which individuals are assigned without regard for their actions, desires, or abiliites
a social status acquired through an individual's own actions
set of all statuses occupied by a person at the same time
a position so important that it dominates al other statuses in the individual's status set, for both the individual holding the status and others
the status that defines or structures the role set for a particular situation
any status formally defined as irrelevant to a situation and which should have no bearing on interaction
division of labor
different people perform distinct tasks
a set of expectations for anyone occupying a particular social status
the set of all roles associated with a particular social status
actions by an individual occupying a socual status based on their role
modifications or changes in rosle as a result of individual action by people occupying those roles
difficulties meeting the expectations of a single role
when dfiferent roles have incompatible expectations
avoid statuses onvoking incompatible roles for the same role partner
a separation of one's self from the role one must play. It is a strategy to separate identity from action
generalizations about a category of people asserting they have a particular set of characteristics and not taking into account their individual differneces.
an assumptiom that, once having been made, leads to predicted event occurring
studied the impact of physical attractiveness of 1 person on the perception of them by others and the way others treat them
results were that men formed initial impression based off stereotypes and they treated women differently based on if they were attractive or not; the women then acted in ways that conformed to the men; stereotype of them.
emphasizes the meaning of actions and use of symbols in communication
views interaction as analogous to actors in a play
social exchange theory
emphasizes the valued outcomes of the interaction. Assumes people are motivated by self interest as measured by rewards and costs of actions
the social construction of reality
the process by which people define reality, influenced by interactions with others as well as their own life experiences and assumptions
defining the situation
refers to the social process through which the satuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified
a social structure determined by the interactions through which people propose, discuss, and often settle on a shared definition of the situation providing meaning for actions.
strateies people use to convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people
others present whome they would like to impress
audience is not present, can relax and be themselves
work activity requirirng the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing service. E.x., airline attendants are required to wear a smile
norm of reciprocity
if you give someone something, you expect them to give you something of equal value in return
inconsistent with spoken words and unintentional
elements of nonverbal behavior; eye gaze,body position and movement,personal space , interruptions, turn taking.
refers to where someone is looking
occurs when two people look directly into one another's eyes
the process through which people affect one another htrough actions, interpretations of actions, and responses to actions
interaction among people or groups in which they act together to achieve a common goal which might not be achievable acting alone
functional theory emphasizes cooperation
the struggle for a limited resource having value to different participants often requiring the defeat of others to achieve xthe goal
central to conflict theory
zero sum game
describes social interactions in which one participant can win only if the other participants lose and whatever benefits the winner get become losses for the others so there is no net positive benefit of the interaction
occurs when one person or group forces its will on another, based on the threat of physical force or violence
is conflict governed by rules limiting the conflict
Socialization: The functiional view
is one of the primary means by which culture including knowledge is passed from one generation to the next
ex: barbara hey studied house of prostitution on training new employees
Socialization: The conflict view
the means by which the rich and powerful pass on their advantages to their children
ex: Patricia Allat studied middle class families and how pass on advantages to their kids
the monetary resources available to people's children
acquired social competence,self confidence, and social networks offering support
a process of socialization in which children of the rich are prepared for and directed towards positions of privilege in society while children of the poor are prepared for and directed into low prestige positions of subservience
symbolic interactionst view:
constructing social self
the first stage of child's social development, where behavior is largely imitation of others, with little use for symbols and limited role-taking
here individuals learn to evaluate themselves and other social objects from the point of view of particular significant others, individuals with whom they are interacting such as a mother or father
here children learn to tale on the role of multiple others at the same time
the final stage in which the individual is capable of taking on the role of the generalized other
assessing behavior in terms of the norms and values of the broad society and responding to abstract principles and symbols
socialization occuring in settings intentionally designed for socializaiton
socialization in which peers and more experienced members rain newcomers as they carry out their roles
refers to the interactions between genders that tends to strengthen and perpetuate gender boundaries
is socialization for a status that occurs before the person occupies the status
a process of unlearning old norms, then learning new ones required by the new social environment
a ritual in which someone experiences negative, often extremely embarrassing events in the presence of others
Socialization for dying
the five stages are: 1. denal, 2. anger, 3. bargaining, 4. resignation, 5. acceptance
rights of pasage
ceremonies marking important tranisitons in life such as the passage from being single to being married
an ordered set of relationships among social actors having shared meaning
a set of people with something in common, but who interact only minimally, if at all
interact in patterened ways over long period o ftime, shared interests, usually co-presence
common links or connections, often no co-presence
purposefully constructed, organized to achieve goals
enduring set of social relationships designed to achieve fundamental social goals
population living in same geographic area whose members share a common culture
the social processes and social structures that develop in groups
things done in a group that we would not have done except for the influence of the group
1. Sherif and the Autokinetic Effect
2. Asch: Effects of Group Pressure on Conformity; significant tendency for individuals to conform to group judgement.
in a very dark room with onky a single point of light visible, people think the light moves because they have no reference points for comparison.
1. Sherif and the Autokinetic Effect: examined the effects of group pressure on conformity; results were that individuals conform to the group's judgement.
occurs when individual group members oppose the decision of a group but are afraid to speak out against what they perceive to be the group consensus
1. Bay of Pigs Invasion
2. The Challenger Disaster
Stanley Milgram Experiment: where teachers were supposed to shock people at increasing voltage every time they answered a questions incorrectly; the person yelled stop and it was to see if the person would stop because they knew it was wrong or if they kept going because they were told to keep going.
are people who assume or are assigned responsibility for seeing that the group fulfills its goals
emphasizing completing tasks and achieving goals;usually males
emphasizes group solidarity and morale;usually females
in which the leader takes personal control and demands compliance from others
which involvese all members in decision making and pays more attention to expressive tasks
allows the group to find its own way with little influence from the leader and which is usually the least effective at promoting group goals
members of a group holding the highest status within the group tend to be people who hold higher statuses outside the group as well
tasks where the perfromance of the group can only be as good as the perfromance of the weakest link or weakest member
tasks where if any one individual can solve them, then the entire group is likely to solve them as well
Example: "eureka problems" where once shown the solution to the problem it seems so obvious that they shot eureka!
smallest possible group, consisting of only two people
three people interacting in a group. They offer the possibility of forming coalitions.
a temporary or permanent alliance designed to achive a common goal
actions which benefit others at no benefit, perhaps even at some risk to the individual who takes those actions
diffusion of responsibility
a tendency for members of a group to each assume others will take responsibility for a decision or action and hence, not taking responsibility themselves
a group in which people have intimate face to face associations that endure for long periods of time
Examples: families, roommates, children's play group
a group that is large and impersonal, members do not know each other intimately or completely, there are weak ties, and the group typically has a less profound impact on the members
Example: PTA, Parent Teacher Association
any group a person considers when evaluating his or her actions or characteristics
a group that members are involved in, and with which the identify
Examples: LA Gangs "Bloods" and "Crips"
is one to which people feel they do not belong. Treated in a hostile manner
Examples: LA Gangs "Bloods" and "Crips"
a series of social relationships linking individuals directly to other individuals and indirectly to still other individuals
localized, kin-based cooperative coalitions of people based on strong ties
point out that networks can provide social support, information, job opportunitiesm and serve other important functions for people
say the elite are effective at using social networks to maintain their advantage over others
purposefully constructed to meet goals with max efficiency; many members linked by collective goal,roles,rules for behavior,and relationships of authority
total institutions: regulate all aspects of a persons behavior such as mental hospitals or prisons
norms and values;voluntary associations
organizations established to pursue common interests whose members volunteer and often pay to participate
Example: interest groups,churches,boy scouts,gangs
can be local,regional,national,international
pervasive process characterizing modern society in which traditional methods and standards of social organization based on tradition,belief,magic, are replaced with new methods and standards of social organization; based on objectively calculable scientific criteria.
a formal organization that attempts to maximize efficiency and productivity through the rationalization of work.
division of labor
breaking complex tasks into simpler component and assigning different workers to perform each components; each member has special duties in which they become highly skilled
when members of bureaucratic organizations aren't willing to take bold decisions to handle problems in new ways but instead try to solve problems using old methods.
act in a manner which is rational for individual but irrational for the organization as a whole.
hierarchical line of authority
indicates who is responsible for decisions and who reports to whom
people not willing to make decision because are trying to avoid responsibility
in formal organization are hired,promoted, and compensated based on their performance and competence.
the Peter Principle
talented people are promoted until they reach a level of incompetence and then they are no longer promoted.
bureaucratic norm that officials carry out their duties without consideration for people as individuals.
can lead to alienation
written rules and regulations
specify rights and duties associated with each position or status in the organization and procedures required for each task.
overzealous conformity to official regulations where there rigid application becomes dysfunctional for the organization.
flexible, implicit norms governing the organization; what people do instead of what they are supposed to do
McDonaldization of Society: efficiency, quantification,predictability,control
Iron Law of Oligarchy
even democratic organization will eventually become ruled by a few individualsf