APUSH The American Pageant 12e Ch 34 Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1938
Terms in this set (50)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
The United States presidential election of 1932 took place as the effects of the 1929 Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression were being felt intensely across the country. President Herbert Hoover's popularity was falling as voters felt he was unable to reverse the economic collapse, or deal with prohibition. FDR won
Bank "holiday" (March 1933)
closing of banks for four days during the Great Depression, March 6-10. Roosevelt declared this holiday to prelude opening banks on a sounder basis.
The "Hundred Days"
In the "Hundred Days," Roosevelt enjoyed an often-pliant Congress and a honeymoon with the press. By its end, he had passed 15 major laws, given 15 messages to Congress and 10 speeches, held press conferences and cabinet meetings twice a week and sponsored an international conference, made all major policy decisions, foreign and domestic, and, as Arthur Schlesinger notes, "never displayed fright or panic and rarely even bad temper."
The "3 R's"
1. Relief - Immediate action taken to halt the financial deterioration
2. Recovery - "Pump - Priming" Temporary programs to restart the flow of consumer demand (consumer = person who makes purchases)
3. Reform - Permanent programs to avoid another depression
Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933)
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Government legislation that made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans. This allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange. It also took the U.S off the gold standard and introduced FDIC.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.
insured bank accounts due to loss of faith in banks during depression FDIC
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal Program set up to help put the unemployed back to work and to help the environment - built bridges, planted trees, etc...
Federal Emergency Relief Act
The Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins, a New York social worker who was one of Franklin D. Roosevelt's most influential advisers
, law provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed
Affected the people in trying to aid people feeling the effects of the depression, still in effect today
Harry L. Hopkins
This man led the FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration) which replaced Hoover's RFC by giving grants to the states to promote civil work projects, but the states preferred just to give the money to the men instead of creating jobs. He would also run the CWA and the WPA
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
1933 sought to help raise commodity prices by paying farmers to cut back production; the money for the benefit payments made to farmers would be raised from a "processing tax" levied on the businesses
Home Owners' Loan Corp. (HOLC)
loaned money at low interest to homeowners who could not meet mortage payments
Civil Works Admin. (CWA)
work program that focused on temporary infrastructure jobs (roads, librarys, airports) four million people got jobs
people against the New Deal, leader who manipulates people with half truths and scare tactics
Father Charles Coughlin
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Sen. Huey P. Long
Agitator who championed the "Share our wealth" program.
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
Works Progress Administration (WPA, 1935)
New Deal program that provided releif to the unemployed in fields such as theatre, literature, entertainment, etc.
National Recovery Admin. (NRA "Blue Eagle")
business leaders created codes for fair competition, hoped to break cycle of wage cuts/falling prices/layoffs, ruled unconstitutional in 1935 (gave president too much power, regulated commerce within states)
Schecter "sick chicken" decision (1935)
Supreme court decision which shot down the NRA. Said that congress could not delegate powers to the executive branch
Public Works Admin. (PWA)
Intended for industrial recovery and unemployment relief. Led by Harold L. Ickes. Long range recovery was the main goal and $4 Billion was spent by this Administration
Harold L. Ickes
the Interior Secretary in charge of the PWA, he hired private contractors instead of workers on a government payroll, it indirectly served the purpose of work relief
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet.
Twenty-first Amendment (1933)
repealed the 18th amendment which banned liquor
Agricultural Adjustment Admin. (AAA)
encouraged famers to cut prodcution in return for a subsidy (gov't paying); raise tax
If common stock price rises above the conversion price of the preferred, preferred price goes up too because of the set amounts and how the ratio must remain the same.
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
The "Indian New Deal"
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934 (signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)) the Indian New Deal, was U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
The IRA was perhaps the most significant initiative of John Collier Sr., Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) from 1933 to 1945. He had worked on Indian issues for ten years prior to his appointment, particularly with the Indian Defense Fund. He had intended to reverse some of the worst government policies and provide ways for American Indians to re-establish sovereignty and self-government, to reduce the losses of reservation lands, and establish ways for Indians to build economic self-sufficiency. While being considered at Congress, various interests forced changes to the legislation that reduced protections for Indians and preserved oversight by BIA.
"Truth in Securities Act"
Passed by Congress to restore confidence in the stock market, required corporations issuing new securities to provide full and accurate information about them to the public.
Securities and Exchange Commission (1934)
A government organization which upheld U.S. securities laws and regulated the industry.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
June 1933 New Deal act. Innovative attempt at regional planning. Series of dams in seven states on the Tennessee river to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Endures to this day. Relief and Reform
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment. Currently part of HUD.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Wagner Act (1935)
Also called the National Labor Relations Act. Established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
National Labor Relations Board
Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.
John L. Lewis
long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)
created a minimum wage of 40 cents per hour; set up a maximum of 44 hours per week in a number of industries; banned children under the age of 16 from working in some industries
Alfred M. Landon
The governor of Kansas, chosen candidate for the Republicans in the campaign of 1936. A moderate who accepted some New Deal Reforms, but not the Social Security Act. His loss to FDR was mainly because he never appealed to the "forgotten man". (792)
Twentieth Amendment (1933)
Shortened the time between the election and inauguration day (Presidential and Congressional Terms) -- eliminated 'lame duck' Congress
FDR's court-packing scheme (1937)
aimed generally to overhaul and modernize all of the federal court system, its central and most controversial provision would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court for every sitting
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
Hatch Act (1939)
Permitted government employees to vote in government elections but forbade them from participating in partisan politics
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