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21 terms

Chapter 8: Earth Systems

STUDY
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Subsurface mining
Mining techniques used when the desired resource is more than 100m below the surface of the earth
Placer mining
A mining technique in which metals and precious stones are sought in river sediments
mountaintop removal
A mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives
open-pit mining
A mining technique that uses a large pit or hole in the ground, visible from the surface of the earth
strip mining
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
Mining Spoils (Tailings)
Unwanted waste material created during mining
Ore
A concentrated accumulation of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted
Soil Degradation
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth
texture
The property of soil determined by relative proportions of sand,silt, and clay
parental material
Rock underlying soil; the material from which the inorganic components of a soil are derived
deposition
The accumulation or depositing of eroded material such as sediment, rock fragments, or soil
Acid rain
Precipitation high in sulfuric acid and nitric acid from reactions between sulfur dioxide and water vapor and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere
Richter Scale
A scale that measures the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake
epicenter
The exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where rock ruptures during an earthquake
divergent plate boundaries
An area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other
convergent plate boundaries
An area where plates move toward one another and collide
lithosphere
The outermost layer of Earth, including the mantle and crust
asthenosphere
The layer of Earth located in the outer part of the mantle, composed of semi-molten rock
plate tectonics
The theory that the lithosphere of earth is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
fault
A fracture in rock caused by a movement of Earth's crust
erosion
The physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem