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3. A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is a
6. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent
possible prehistoric superfamilies
7. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the trunks of the trees represent
9. Both the Angles and the Normans contributed to the development of the English language, because they
10. English is the most important language in North America primarily because of
the diffusion of English colonies
11. The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day
16. The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of
Iceland's relative isolation from other places
17. When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe
isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two
31. Recent evidence points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient
34. According to Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe
with the diffusion of agriculture
36. The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is
42. The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily from
thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups
44. African languages are distinguished by the fact that
few are spoken by more than one million people
45. A lingua franca is
a language that is mutually understood by people who have different native languages
46. Dialects developed within England primarily because
different Germanic invaders settled in different regions
58. What is one of the main elements of cultural diversity among the nearly one billion residents of India?
60. Why are 16 percent of the Chinese population over the age of sixteen unable to read or write more than a few characters of Chinese?
large number of Chinese characters
63. How do the structures of Chinese and Japanese language differ?
Japanese uses two systems of phonetic symbols
64. Which language family transcends (in importance) the number of speakers because its languages were used to write the holiest books of three major world religions\: the Bible (New and Old Testaments), and the Quran?
65. A standard Arabic language has developed among the 230 million speakers because
of the influence of the Quran, newspapers, and radio
69. The three tribes that brought the beginnings of English to the British Isles came from
Germany and Denmark
73. What treaty ensured that Spanish and Portuguese would be diffused to the western portion of the New World?
Treaty of Tordesillas
74. How has Switzerland remained at peace with four or five different languages within their borders?
Switzerland has a decentralized government
89. Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
90. Americans pronounce words differently than the British primarily because people changed their accents after moving to the American colonies.
91. New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans, because they came from different regions of England
92. A language family is a set of languages that can be shown to derive from a common ancestor.
95. A language group is a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
96. English is a language in the West Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family.
100. Physical boundaries such as mountains or oceans are strong intervening obstacles creating barriers to communication between people living on the opposite sides.
104. The most widely used languages in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh come from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
107. Speakers of two different Indian languages who wish to communicate with each other can sometimes turn to English as a common language.
109. The desire to use native languages other than Russian was a major drive in the breakup of the Soviet Union a decade ago.
115. In the Korean language, Chinese and Japanese words are the principal sources for creating new words to describe new technology and concepts.
117. If two groups who speak the same language are isolated from one another for a long period, the two groups will speak languages that are so different that they will be classified as separate languages.
118. English is an official language in countries that contain one-third of the people of the world.
119. English is classified as a Low Germanic language because the people who migrated to England came from the northern lowlands.
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