38 terms

Microbiology Vocabulary

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Cloning
Making an identical copy using DNA
Bacteria
Living pathogen, killed by antibiotics
Eukaryotic
Cells with a nucleus and organelles
Mutagen
Something that causes a mutation
Antibiotics
Medicine that kills bacteria
Antimicrobial
Kills microorganisms (ex. hand sanitizer)
Diabetes
Disease where the body can't make insulin
Chloroplast
Organelle where photosynthesis takes place, only found in plant cells
Host Cell
Cell used to help viruses replicate
Cancer
Rapid division of cells (uncontrolled mitosis); causes tumors
Protist
Eukaryotic organism that lives in wet environments (ex. amoeba, paramecium)
Rhinovirus
Pathogen causing the common cold
Nucleus
Control center or 'brain' of the cell
Antibiotic Resistance
When bacteria cannot be killed by antibiotics
Pathogen
Causes a disease (ex. bacteria, virus, parasite)
Pandemic
An epidemic that spreads world-wide
Cell Membrane
surrounds the cell; the "gate keeper"
Vector
Spreads a disease to others
Virus
Non-living pathogen; needs a host cell to survive
Parasite
Organism that lives off another organism; needs a host
Multicellular
Means "many cells"
Carcinogen
Causes cancer
Penicillin
Medicine that comes from mold; used to kill bacteria
Exposure
To come in contact with a pathogen or disease
Meiosis
Division of sex cells; makes 4 different gametes
Mitosis
Division of cells; makes 2 identical cells
Symbiosis
Relationships between organisms (ex. Mutualism)
Vaccine
Prevents disease; creates immunity
Prokaryotic
Cells with no nucleus or organelles; ex. Bacteria
Epidemic
Disease that spreads quickly over a small area
Organelle
Parts or "organs" of a cell
Niche
An organism's place or purpose in an ecosystem
Susceptibility
How likely you are to get a disease
Genetic Modification
Changing genes or DNA (ex. Agriculture)
Insulin
Medicine for diabetes; helps break down glucose (sugar)
Mutualism
Relationship that benefits both (+, +)
Parasitism
Relationship where one organism hurts the other (+, -)
Commensalism
Relationship where one benefits, and the other is unaffected (+, 0)