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39 terms

Botany: Plant Tissues and Cell Types

UALR Botany: Plant Tissues and Cell Types Review
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Apical Meristem
A mass of dividing cells at the very tip of a shoot or root
Chorenchyma
Parenchyma tissue possessing chloroplasts
Collenchyma
A tissue composed of living cells with thickened cell walls capable of stretching that fit rather closely together; found in young stems and petioles
Companion Cell
Phloem cell associated with sieve-tube members
Cork Cambium
A meristem that forms the periderm (bark and related tissues); synonym for phellogen
Cortex
Region of primary tissue in a stem or root bounded externally by the epidermis and internally in the stem by the phloem and in the root by the pericycle; develops from the primary meristem, the ground meristem
Cuticle
Waxy layer on outer wall of epidermal cells
Dermal Tissue System
Consists of the outer tissues of the plant body, epidermis (a primary tissue) and the periderm (a secondary tissue); functions to protect the plant body from drying, pathogens, and insects
Epidermis
A superficial layer of cells occurring on all parts of the primary plant body: stems, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds; it is absent from the root cap and is not differentiated on the apical meristems
Fiber
Tan elongated, tapering, thick-walled strengthening cell occurring in various parts of plant bodies; one of the cell types in sclerenchyma tissue
Ground Meristem
A primary meristem that gives rise to cortex, mesophyll, and pith
Ground Tissue System
Tissues of the plant body responsible for housekeeping functions, for example, storage, support, photosynthesis, and others; collenchyma, sclerenchyma, and parenchyma
Guard Cell
Specialized epidermal cell found on young stems and leaves; between each pair of guard cells is a small pore through which gases enter or leave; a pair of guard cells in addition to the pore constitute a stoma
Meristem
Sites in the plant body where cells divide and where differentiation into specialized cells and tissues is initiated
Mesophyll
Parenchyma tissue of leaf between epidermal layers, where most photosynthesis takes place
Parenchyma
A tissue composed of cells that perform housekeeping functions such as photosynthesis and storage of water and other substances; cells usually have thin walls of cellulose, and often fit rather loosely together, leaving intercellular spaces
Periderm
Protective tissue that replaces the epidermis after secondary growth is initiated; consists of cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm
Phloem
Food-conducting tissue, consisting of sieve-tube members with companion cells or sieve cells, phloem parenchyma, and fibers
Pith
The parenchyma tissue occupying the central portion of a stem or root
Primary Meristems
Meristems of the shoot or root tip giving rise to the primary tissues—protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
Primary Phloem
The part of the phloem differentiated from the procambium during primary growth
Primary Tissue
Tissue that forms from primary meristems (epidermis, xylem, phloem, and ground tissues)
Primary Xylem
The part of the xylem differentiated from the procambium during primary growth
Procambium
A primary meristem that gives rise to primary vascular tissues and, in most woody plants, to the vascular cambium
Protoderm
A primary meristem that gives rise to epidermis
Sclereid
A type of sclerenchyma cell with a heavily lignified cell wall; can have a variety of shapes
Schlerenchyma
A strengthening tissue composed of cells with heavily lignified cell walls; two main cell types are fibers and sclereids
Secondary Phloem
Tissue formed by division of the vascular cambium, usually toward the outside of the organ
Secondary Xylem
Tissue formed by division of the vascular cambium, usually toward the inside of the organ; main component of wood
Sieve Tube Member
The main type of conducting cell in the phloem of flowering plants; connected to other sieve tube members by sieve plates; specialized for the conduction of food materials
Stoma (pl. stomata)
A minute opening plus two guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems, through which gases pass
Tissue
A group of cells of similar structure that performs a special function
Tracheary Element
General term for the conducting elements in xylem, a vessel member or tracheid
Tracheid
An elongated, tapering xylem cell with lignified pitted walls, adapted for conduction and support, and without open end walls; found mainly in ferns and gymnosperms
Trichome
A short filament or "hair" of one or more cells extending from the epidermis
Vascular Bundle
A strand of tissue containing primary xylem and primary phloem (and procambium, if present) and frequently enclosed by a bundle sheath of parenchyma or fibers
Vascular Cambium
Cambium giving rise to secondary phloem and secondary xylem; associated with secondary growth in woody plants
Vessel Element
A conducting cell in the xylem of flowering plants; typically have a lignified secondary cell wall and open end walls, joined end to end by opened perforation plates to form vessels; specialized for water transport
Xylem
A plant tissue consisting of tracheids, vessel members, parenchyma cells, and fibers; specialized for water transport