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46 terms

lymphatic and blood signs, symptoms, diseases, and disorders

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anisocytosis
presence of red blood cells of unequal size
bacteremia
presebce if bacteria in the bloodstream
erythropenia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
hemolysis
rupture of the red blood cell membrane
hemorrhage
loss of blood from the circulation
macrocytosis
abnormally large-sized red blood cells
polycythemia
abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood
splenomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the spleen
toxemia
presence of toxins in the blood
AIDS
acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome; is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which disables the immune reponse by destroying mainly helper T cells (which are needed for activation of B cells) the loss of immune function allows opportunistic to proliferate and eventually cause death
allergy
response to an allergen, which is an antigen that produces a hypersensitivity reaction that includes immediated inflammation but does not elicit other immune responses; allergies are of many types, the most common of which are allergic rhinitis (hay fever), which affects the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and throa, and allergic dermatitis, which affects the skin where it has made contact with allergen
anaphylaxis
an immediate reaction to an antigen that includes rapid inflammation and systemwide smooth muscle contractions
anemia
a reduced ability of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to tissues; common forms of anemia include aplatic anemia. iron deficiency anemia, sicle cell anemia, and pernicious anemia
aplastic anemia
anemia charadcterized by the failure of red bone marrow to produce red blood cells
autoimmune disorder
anyone of several disease that are caused by a person's own immune response attacking otherwise healthy tissues, including rhematiod arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis
botulism
a form of poisoning caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with the toxin produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum
diphtheria
disease caused by a bacterium and its toxin, resulting in inflammation of mucous membranes, primarily in the mouth and throat
dyscrasia
general term for an abnormal condition of the blood
erythroblastosis fetalis
blood disorder resulting from incompatibility between a fetus with Rh positive blood and its mother with Rh negative blood, which causes the destruction of fetal red blood cells, and requires blood transfusions to save the fetus; also known as Rh mismatch or hemolytic disease of newborn
fungemia
Fungal infection distributed by way of the bloodstream.
gas gangrene
infection of a wound caused by various anaerobic bacteria; produces a fermentation gas, necrosis, and septicemia
hemochromatosis
inherited disorder that results in an excessive accumulation of iron deposits in the body
hemophilia
inherited bleeding disorder that results from defective clotting proteins involved in blood coagulation
hodgkin's disease
cancer of lymphatic tissue; characterized by the progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, fatigue, and deficiency of the immune response
immunodeficiency
condition that results from a defective immune response
immunosuppression
reduction of the immune response caused by disease or, in the case of organ transplants, by the use of chemical, pharmocologic, pharmacologic, physical, or immunologic agents
infection
multiplication of disease-causing microorganisms within the body
inflammation
a swelling of body tissue caused by the movement of plasma into the extracellular space to produce edema or fluid accumulation, in tissue; the protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury; symptoms include swelling, redness, heat, and pain
influenza
a viral disease characterized by a temporary inflammation of mucous membranes and fever; commonly called "the flu," the virus is highly contagious and is capable of mutating to escape detection by white blood cells
iron deficiency anemia
anemia that is caused by a lack of iron, which results in smaller red blood cells containing deficient levels of hemoglobin
leukemia
cancer of the red bone marrow, which is the blood-forming tissue; charaterized by an increase number of white blood cells, many of which are abnormal and nonfunctional
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
literally, disease of the lypmph nodes; this general term is often applied to a syndrome, lymphadenopathy syndrome which is a persistent swelling of the lymph nodes that often precedes the onset of AIDS
lymphoma
tumor that originates in lymphatic tissue
malaria
disease caused by a parasitic protozoan that infects red blood cells and is carried by Anopheles mosquitoes; characterized by periodic fevers and fatigue
mononucleosis
viral disease characterized by enlarged lynph nodes, atypical lymphocytes, sore throat, fever, and fatigue
myelodysplasia
bone marrow disorder characterized by the proliferation of abnormal stem cells; usually develops into a form of leukemia
nosocomial infections
disorder that usually consists of bacterial infections contracted furing a hospital stay; often due to antibiotic- resistant strains of staphylococcus
pernicious anemia
anemia caused by an insufficiency of vitamin B12, resulting in red blood cells that are large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
plague
any infectious disease of wide prevalence or excessive mortality; also refers specifically to an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that is characterized by high fever, skin eruptions, internal hemorrhage, and peumonia, whic is also called bubonic plague
rabies
a virus infection spread from the mouth of an infected animal, usually by way of a bite; the virus produces a neurotoxin that acts on the centeral nervous system and os highly fatal
septicemia
systemic disease caused by the presence of bacteria and their toxins in the circulating blood; a person suffering from this is referred to as "septic"
sicle cell anemia
inherited, chronic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin that causes red blood cells to become misshapen (sicle-shaped), resulting in drowsiness, leg ulcerations, fever, joint and abdominal pain, and thrombosis
staphylococcemia
presence of Staphylococci bacteria in the blood, which is the literal meaning of the term; commonly called a staph infection, it is a frequent complication to normal healing and is also the most common cause of food poisoning, skin inflammation osteomyelitus, and nosocomial infections
tetanus
a disease caused by a powerful neurotoxin released by the common bacterium clostridium tetani; the toxin acts upon the central nervous system to caused convulsions and paralysis
thymoma
tumor that originates in the thymus gland