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the science that studies human society and social behavior

social interaction

behavior between two or more people that is given meaning by them

sociological perspective *

a viewing of the behavior of groups in a systematic way

sociological imagination

The ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives is what C. Wright Mills termed the

social psychology

the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole

social darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.


positive consequence, an element of society has for the maintanence of the social system


empathetic understanding of the meanings others attach to their actions

functionalist perspective

focuses on society as a set of interelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. assumes society is held together through consensus

conflict perspective

A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups

interactionist perspective

focuses on everyday social interaction among individuals rather than on large societal structures such as politics and education


systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena


negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system

manifest function

the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern,

latent function

unintended and unrecognized consequencess of some element of society


anything that stands for something else.


all the shared products of human groups;These products include both physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group.

material culture

physical objects that people create to form a groups _____culture

non material culture

Abstract human creations form a group's ____culture


shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable.


are the shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations


are the common customs of everyday life;norms that do no have great moral significance attached to them.


have great moral significance attached to them; violation of ___endangers the well-being and stability of society.

cultural universals

Features that are common to all cultures are called


The tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior is called

cultural relativism

Social scientists who attempt to keep an open mind toward cultural variation adopt an attitude of cultural


Some groups in society share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population. The unique cultural characteristics of these groups form a


is the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality


rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms

formal sanctions

a reward or punishment that is given by some formal organization

informal sanctions

a spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or a group

positive sanctions

rewards,things like smiles, financial rewards, and praise.

negative sanctions

punishments suchs as jail times, tickets


the spreading of culture traits from one society to another

cultural lag

the situation called in which some aspects of a culture change less rapidly than other aspects of the same culture

hindsight bias


dispositional view


group think



a change in a persons behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people


best describes the behavior of a person who is motivated by a desire to gain reward or avoid punishment


a response to social influence brought about by an individual desire to be like the influences

social influence


Traditional American values

personal achievement, equality & democracy,freedom,work,morality, progress & material comfort, efficiency & practicality, self fulfillment


range from simple folkways to very strict mores;a written rule of conduct that is enacted and enforced by the government


When a group rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns, the subculture that emerges is called a

Herbert Spencer

The influence of Darwin led him to adopt a biological model of society. His work became known as social Darwinism

Karl Marx

The people who own the means of production control society, according to ;He believed that society is divided between those who own the means of production and those who own only their labor

Max weber

He was interested more in groups within society than in the social whole

Emile Durkheim

He believed that sociologists should study only those aspects of society that are directly observable; He saw shared beliefs and values as the glue that holds society together

social structure

the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction


a socially defined position in a group or in a society


the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status

ascribed status

status that is assigned according to standards that are beyond a person's control is called a

achieved status

status that is obtained by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability is called a

master status

status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity

role expectations

socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role are called role

role performance

actual behavior of a person perfoming a role

role set

Sociologists call the different roles attached to a single status

role conflict

occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status.

role strain

situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role

exchagne theory

belief that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people


occurs when two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain


the deliberate attempt to control by force, oppose, harm, or resist the will of another person or persons


occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people

formal group

include a variety of groupings such as schools, businesses, and governmental agencies.

informal group

a group in which there is no official structure established or rules of conduct

primary group

small group of ppl who interact over a relativity long period of time ona direct and personal basis

secondary group

group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature

reference group

any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they often adopt

in group

The group that a person belongs to and identifies with is called

out group

any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with


Behavior that violates significant social norms is called


mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society


study of crime

strain theory

theory of deviant behavior that views of deviance as the natural growth of the values, norms, and structure of society

control theory

see deviance as a natural occurrence and conformity as the result of social control

cultural transmission theory

theory views deviance as a learned behavior

lableing theory

focuses on how individuals come to be labeled as deviant.


any act that is labeled as such by those in authority is prohibited by law and is punishable by govt


use of threatened or actual violence in the pursuit of political goals

white collar crime

crime committed by an individual or group of high social status in the course of their professional lives

criminal justice system

the system of police, courts, and corrections

police discretion

the fact that police can choose when and when not to give tickets and punishment based on their own judgement

racial profiling

the practice of assuming non white americans are more likely to comming crimes than white Americans

plea bargaining

the process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence


the sanctions that are used to punish criminals


repeated criminal behavior

ethnic group

Individuals who share a common cultural background and a common sense of identity are known as an


set of cultural characterisitcs that distinguish one group from another


catergory of ppl who share inherited physical characteristics and who are percieved by others as being a distinct group

minority group

a catergory of people who share physical characteristics or cultural practices that result in the group being denied equal treatment.


the denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership.


an unsupported generalization about a category of people


an oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a category of people

self fulfilling prophecy

a prediction that results in behvaior that makes the prediction come true


the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic


The practice of placing blame for one's troubles on an innocent individual or group is called

cultural pluralism

switzerland because it recongnizes for four languages


The blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity is called


the physical separation of a minority group from the dominant group.


extermination aimed at the intentionallydestroying an entire population

emotional contagion

the rapid transmission of emotions or behaviors through a crowd

elaboration likelihood model

the theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change

central route

a situation in which ppl elaborate on a persuasive communication listen carefully to ones thinking (facts)

peripheral route

emotions--- a situation to be persuade

source of communication

credibility, increasing trustworthiness, attractiveness


if the source of communication is both expert and trustworthy she or he is likely to have an impact on the beliefs of the audience

logical v emotional

our opinions are influenced by the experts who are both experts and trustworthy

evidence v example

can be increase if he argues a position apparently opposed to his or her self interest

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