the science that studies human society and social behavior
social interaction
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning by them
sociological perspective *
a viewing of the behavior of groups in a systematic way
sociological imagination
The ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives is what C. Wright Mills termed the
social psychology
the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole
social darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
positive consequence, an element of society has for the maintanence of the social system
empathetic understanding of the meanings others attach to their actions
functionalist perspective
focuses on society as a set of interelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. assumes society is held together through consensus
conflict perspective
A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
interactionist perspective
focuses on everyday social interaction among individuals rather than on large societal structures such as politics and education
systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena
negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system
manifest function
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern,
latent function
unintended and unrecognized consequencess of some element of society
anything that stands for something else.
all the shared products of human groups;These products include both physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group.
material culture
physical objects that people create to form a groups _____culture
non material culture
Abstract human creations form a group's ____culture
shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable.
are the shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations
are the common customs of everyday life;norms that do no have great moral significance attached to them.
have great moral significance attached to them; violation of ___endangers the well-being and stability of society.
cultural universals
Features that are common to all cultures are called
The tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior is called
cultural relativism
Social scientists who attempt to keep an open mind toward cultural variation adopt an attitude of cultural
Some groups in society share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population. The unique cultural characteristics of these groups form a
is the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality
rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms
formal sanctions
a reward or punishment that is given by some formal organization
informal sanctions
a spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or a group
positive sanctions
rewards,things like smiles, financial rewards, and praise.
negative sanctions
punishments suchs as jail times, tickets
the spreading of culture traits from one society to another
cultural lag
the situation called in which some aspects of a culture change less rapidly than other aspects of the same culture
hindsight bias
dispositional view
group think
a change in a persons behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people
best describes the behavior of a person who is motivated by a desire to gain reward or avoid punishment
a response to social influence brought about by an individual desire to be like the influences
social influence
Traditional American values
personal achievement, equality & democracy,freedom,work,morality, progress & material comfort, efficiency & practicality, self fulfillment
range from simple folkways to very strict mores;a written rule of conduct that is enacted and enforced by the government
When a group rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns, the subculture that emerges is called a
Herbert Spencer
The influence of Darwin led him to adopt a biological model of society. His work became known as social Darwinism
Karl Marx
The people who own the means of production control society, according to ;He believed that society is divided between those who own the means of production and those who own only their labor
Max weber
He was interested more in groups within society than in the social whole
Emile Durkheim
He believed that sociologists should study only those aspects of society that are directly observable; He saw shared beliefs and values as the glue that holds society together
social structure
the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction
a socially defined position in a group or in a society
the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
ascribed status
status that is assigned according to standards that are beyond a person's control is called a
achieved status
status that is obtained by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability is called a
master status
status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity
role expectations
socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role are called role
role performance
actual behavior of a person perfoming a role
role set
Sociologists call the different roles attached to a single status
role conflict
occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status.
role strain
situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role
exchagne theory
belief that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
occurs when two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
the deliberate attempt to control by force, oppose, harm, or resist the will of another person or persons
occurs when two or more persons or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people
formal group
include a variety of groupings such as schools, businesses, and governmental agencies.
informal group
a group in which there is no official structure established or rules of conduct
primary group
small group of ppl who interact over a relativity long period of time ona direct and personal basis
secondary group
group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
reference group
any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they often adopt
in group
The group that a person belongs to and identifies with is called
out group
any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with
Behavior that violates significant social norms is called
mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
study of crime
strain theory
theory of deviant behavior that views of deviance as the natural growth of the values, norms, and structure of society
control theory
see deviance as a natural occurrence and conformity as the result of social control
cultural transmission theory
theory views deviance as a learned behavior
lableing theory
focuses on how individuals come to be labeled as deviant.
any act that is labeled as such by those in authority is prohibited by law and is punishable by govt
use of threatened or actual violence in the pursuit of political goals
white collar crime
crime committed by an individual or group of high social status in the course of their professional lives
criminal justice system
the system of police, courts, and corrections
police discretion
the fact that police can choose when and when not to give tickets and punishment based on their own judgement
racial profiling
the practice of assuming non white americans are more likely to comming crimes than white Americans
plea bargaining
the process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence
the sanctions that are used to punish criminals
repeated criminal behavior
ethnic group
Individuals who share a common cultural background and a common sense of identity are known as an
set of cultural characterisitcs that distinguish one group from another
catergory of ppl who share inherited physical characteristics and who are percieved by others as being a distinct group
minority group
a catergory of people who share physical characteristics or cultural practices that result in the group being denied equal treatment.
the denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership.
an unsupported generalization about a category of people
an oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a category of people
self fulfilling prophecy
a prediction that results in behvaior that makes the prediction come true
the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic
The practice of placing blame for one's troubles on an innocent individual or group is called
cultural pluralism
switzerland because it recongnizes for four languages
The blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity is called
the physical separation of a minority group from the dominant group.
extermination aimed at the intentionallydestroying an entire population
emotional contagion
the rapid transmission of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
elaboration likelihood model
the theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change
central route
a situation in which ppl elaborate on a persuasive communication listen carefully to ones thinking (facts)
peripheral route
emotions--- a situation to be persuade
source of communication
credibility, increasing trustworthiness, attractiveness
if the source of communication is both expert and trustworthy she or he is likely to have an impact on the beliefs of the audience
logical v emotional
our opinions are influenced by the experts who are both experts and trustworthy
evidence v example
can be increase if he argues a position apparently opposed to his or her self interest