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One difference between working memory and long-term memory is that
the contents of working memory depend on the content of one'e current thinking, but the contents of long-term memory do not
When asked to recall a list of 25 words, participants are likely to remember only some of them. The words they can recall are likely to include
the first few words on the list and also approximately the last 6 words on the list
According to the modal model of memory, words presented early in a list are easier to remember than words presented later because
the early words receive more or the participants' attention than the later words
A sudden, loud noise often has the impact of distracting participants long enough to clear the contents of working memory. Imagine that participants hear a list of the names of 20 different fruits, followed by unexpected loud noise. The effect of the noise will be
a diminished recency effect but no impact on how well the other words in the list are remembered
The modal model has seen some revision in recent years, but a few components remain. Which of the following is no longer an accepted aspect of the modal model?
working memory and long-term memory are considered separate memory processes
Working memory (WM) has been linked to a desk space that holds the current information for a short period of time. This analogy is problematic in what way?
The desk analogy is too static: WM is capable of more than simply short-term shortage
Within working memory, "helpers" like the visuospatial buffer and articulatory rehearsal loop
provide short-term storage of items likely to be needed soon by the central exeutive
Which of the following exemplifies the memory effects of repeated exposure without intention to remember?
Irv is unable to describe the appearance of his wristwatch even though he has owned it for years and looks at it many times each day
Deep processing may lead to improved memory performance because it facilitates retrieval. How exactly does this happen?
Deep processing forms many connection between the current item and previous knowledge
Which of the following observations is MOST likely an illustration of context-dependent learning?
"Last month I went to my 20th high school reunion. I saw people I hadn't thought about for years, but the moment I saw them, I was reminded of the things we'd done together 20 years earlier"
A participant is asked, "In a list of words I showed you earlier, was there a word that rhymed with 'lake'?" The participant is likely to be well prepared for this sort of memory test if he or she
paid attention to the sounds of the words when trying to memorize them
Theories of spreading activation assume that activating one node will lead to
all connected nodes being activated
Which of the following statements is an example of a recognition test?
"Which one of these individuals is the person you saw at the party?"
You are reading The Onion (a satirical news magazine) and see a headline that states "FDA Approves Napalm as Medication," which you find interesting. Later on you are talking to several friends. One suggests that napalm is very dangerous and the other says it is not all that bad. You have a feeling that you read something about napalm lately and decide to chime in. Given what you know about familiarity, how would you likely respond to your friend's debate?
You are more likely to think your pro-napalm friend is correct but be unsure as to why you agree with him.
Cindy and Linda are both eyewitnesses to a bank robbery. At the police station, they each select Mike from a police lineup and say, "He's the thief!" It turns out, though, that Mike has been a customer at the store at which Cindy works and Linda has never seen Mike before. With this background,
Linda's identification is more valuable to the police because Cindy may have been misled by the fact that Mike seemed familiar because of her other encounters with him.
Which of the following is a potential problem for memory retrieval in relation to memory connections?
If two memories become linked, bits of information from one memory can be remembered as part of a different memory.
Liz is trying to remember what she read in a text chapter, but she inadvertently mixes into her recall her own assumptions about the material covered in the chapter. This is an example of
intrusion errors
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included within a kitchen schema?
My mother's kitchen contains a microwave oven.
Participants viewed a series of slides depicting an automobile accident. Immediately afterward, half of the participants were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?" The other participants were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?" One week later, all participants were asked more questions about the slides, including whether they had seen any broken glass in the slides. A comparison of the two groups of participants is likely to show that
participants who were asked the "smashed" question gave higher estimates of speed and were more likely to remember seeing broken glass.
The misinformation effect is an example of
source confusion
We cannot prevent memory errors, but can they be detected?
Currently there is no reliable detector
Evidence suggests that decay
probably explains far less forgetting than interference or retrieval failure
Flashbulb memories are extremely detailed, vivid memories usually associated with highly emotional events. The accuracy of these memories seems
best predicted by the consequentiality of the event to participants' lives
Some researchers have suggested that highly painful memories can be repressed. This theory
is controversial and the evidence is ambiguous at best.
An experimenter reads a list of 30 words to a group of participants at the rate of 1 word/ sec, followed immediately by a free recall test. A second group of participants hears the same 30 words presented at the faster rate of 2 words/sec we expect the group hearing the slower presentation will show improved memory performance for the
pre-recency portion of the list, but there will be no impact on the recency effect
When thinking of a list of digits in terms of racing times. One person is found to report up to 79 digits this suggests that this person?
can remember this information due to a unique chunking strategy
Working memory (WM) has been linked to a desk space that holds the current information for a short period of time. This analogy is problematic in what way?
the desk analogy is too static: WM is capable of more than simply short term storage.
The strategy of maintenance rehearsal involves?
The repetition of the items to be remembered with little attention paid to what the items mean.
Although mnemonics can be helpful for remembering a small number of specific items (like a grocery list), they do have some drawbacks. One such problem is?
using a mnemonic involves a trade off
A student wishes to memorize an essay s that he will be able to recall the essays content later on. Which of the following is likely to be LEAST helpful to him?
reading the essay aloud over and over again
Which of the following observations Is MOST likely an illustration of context-dependent learning?
last month I went to my 20th high school reunion. I saw people that I hadn't thought about for years. But the moment I saw them I was reminded of the things we'd done together 20 years earlier
A participant is asked, "in the list of words I showed you earlier, was there a word that rhymed with lake? The participant is likely to be well prepared for this sort of memory test if he or she?
paid attention to the sound of the words when trying to memorize them.
Which of the following facts about memories for the Amsterdam plane crash is NOT true?
When asked about details of the incident, such as was the plan on fire before the crash or after it crashed into the building
Connections among our various memories do all of the following except?
Help us to resist source confusion
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included within a kitchen schema?
My mother's kitchen contains a microwave oven
Michael and maria both witnessed an auto accident. Maria remembers watching the car race past a stop sign, but she hears Michael report to the police that the car raced past a yield sign. Based on the results of similar studies, maria Is likely to recall that she saw?
A yield sign, incorporation Michaels report into her own recollection
One difference between working memory and long-term memory is that
the contents of working memory depend on the content of one's current thinking, but the contents of long-term memory do not
Free recall refers to
B
An experimenter reads a list of 30 words to a group of participants at the rate of one word per second. This is immediately followed by a free-recall test. A second group of participants hears the same 30 words presented at the faster rate of two words per second, we should expect that the group hearing the slower presentation will show improved memory performance for the
a pre-recency portion of the list, but no impact on the recency effect
Current theory suggests that the central executive may be
a kind of guidance book for how to run a program in the brain
Which of the following does not correlate with working memory capacity?
making an eye movement toward a cue
The operation span of working memory measures the
efficiency with which working memory operates when it is working
When recalling a list of letters (T,O,D,F,P,A,E,G) participants may group the letters into syllables for future recall. One potential issue with that tactic is:
chunking requires resources that make rehearsal difficult.
The central executive is not
a visuospatial buffer
Within working memory "helpers" like the visuospatial buffer and articulatory rehearsal loop
provide a short term storage of items likely to be needed soon by the central executive
You are watching TV when a commercial advertising a new pizza place in town comes on. You decide you want pizza and try to memorize the phone number given in the commercial just as you are about to dial, your cell phone rings and you talk on the phone for a few minutes. What is most likely to happen after you finish your call?
you have forgotten the phone number and must rewind your DVR to retrieve it
Participants in an experiment were asked to keep track of the most recent word they had heard that started with a G. Therefore participants should report gravy after hearing the sequence girl, grump, hat , scissors, whistle
good recollection of "grump", since this word was in the participants thoughts for a long time (while they were waiting for glass)
Week after week, Soloman watched his favorite TV show. He never planned to memorize the characters name and he never took any steps to memorize them. Nontheless he soon knew them all. This sort of learning is called
incidental
Which of the following is an example of a question that leads to deep processing?
what is the meaning of the word tantalizing?
Based on the composite depth of processing data presented in this book how does the intention to memorize influence how well we learn?
the intention to memorize adds nothing to our ability to learn
The intention to learn new material
leads participants to approach the material in the fashion they think best for memorization
Deep processing may lead to improve memory performance because it facilitates retrieval. How exactly does this happen?
deep processing forms connections between the current item and previous knowledge
A participant is trying to memorize the word "parade" to help herself she thinks about the word within a complicated sentence. "from their third-floor apartment. They had a great view of all the bands, the cowboys, and the floats in the thanksgiving parade, this learning strategy will produce
excellent memory performance because
Imagine you are show the word DOG and asked one of the following questions about that word. According to the principles of elaborative encoding, which of the following question is
does it fit into the sentence , The wags his tail?
A physician had just read an article about a recently invented drug. Which of the following is least important in determining whether the physician will remember the article later on?
the physician expected to need the information later on and therefore employed a maintenance memorization strategy that she believed had helped her memorize material in the past
Is memory for complex scenes similar to memory for words?
Yes; organization facilitates memory for both types of stimuli.
The memorizer plays an important role in memory acquisition which of the following is least likely to
the situation in which the memorizer learned the material
What is the best analogy for long-term memory storage?
a busy librarian
Because of the effects of context-dependent learning students might find it wise to?
prepare for their examinations under conditions similar to test conditions
In an experiment participants learned materials in room A and were tested in Room B if they were asked to think about room A just before taking the test participants:
performed well as would they have done had there been no room change
Context has a effect on memory
because it influences how the person thinks of the material to be remembered
Which of the following statements seems to be the best illustration of encoding specificity?
Susan has learned the principle covered in her psychology class but she had difficulty remembering the principles in the context of her day to day life
Two groups of participants were asked to learn a series of word pairs and were then given a memory test. Both groups were told to remember the second word in each pair and use the first word as an aid to remember the targets. For group A the first word was semantically associated with the target word (dark light) for group B the fist word rhymed with the target word
participants in Group B performed better when given a meaning hint than when given a sound unit
Participants are asked to memorize a list of words. The eighth word on the list is inches. The ninth word is meters and the tenth word is feet, in which of the following situations would the participants most likely remember the previous exposure to feet?
in the memory test the fourth word tested is yards and the fifth is feet
Participants is asked to memorize a series of word pairs, including the pair heavy light. The participant is asked later if any of the following words had been included in the list memorized earlier: Lamp, candle, spark, and light. The participant denies having
what was memorized was the idea of "light" as a description of weight, not "light" as illumination
Steve is shown a list of words which includes baby. He is then asked to list all the words he can remember from the list, but he does not include baby. Steve is later asked to identify words and nonwords and baby is presented along with other items, Which of the following patterns is most likely to reflect Steve's performance on this identification tasks?
Steve will respond more quickly to baby than he would other words
Familiarly (as opposed to source memory)
provides one of the important sources for recognition
Herbert says, I cant figure out where I've seen that person before
has a sense of familiarity but no source memory
In the remember know paradigm. Know responses are NOT
given when the participant know he or she saw the stimulus before
Lexical decision tasks require participants to
make word or nonword decisions when presented with letter strings
Which of the following tasks is LEAST appropriate as a means of testing implicit memory?
direct memory testing
Which of the following statements in NOT true for explicit memory?
explicit memory is typically revealed as a priming effect.
Which of the following is most like an example of the influence of implicit memory?
Marcus was taking a multiple choice test he was having a hard time with Question 17, but option d for that question seemed familiar. So he decided that d must be the correct answer.
Participants listen to a series of sentences played against a background of noise. Some of the sentences are identical to sentences heard earlier (without the noise) bit other sentences heard in the noise are new. In this setting, participants will perceive?
the noise as being less loud when it accompanies the familiar sentences
Which of the following claims about memory accuracy is not true?
participants are sometimes mistaken in their recollection of an events minor details, but do not create an entirely new false memory
Which of the following statements about memory accuracy is not true?
memory errors are more common with remember responses relative to know responses
We cannot prevent memory errors, but can they be detected?
currently there is no reliable detectors
Barbara and Michael are presented words to remember for later. During the testing session they are asked to respond Old or new to a series of items. Barbara's answers can be judged to be more accurate than Michael's if?
her responses are faster than Michael's.
Which of the following does not name a hypothesis concerning why we forget?
hypomnesia
Baddeley and hitch asked rugby players to remember all of the rugby games they had played over the course of a single season. According to their data, which is the most important factor in determining whether the players will remember a particular game?
how many other games they have been in since the target game.
Lexical decision task require participants to
make "word" or nonword decisions when presented with letter strings
Which of the following tasks is least appropriate as a means of testing implicit memory?
direct memory testing
Group 1 is shown the following series of words, down, right and sad and is then asked to read the words aloud. Group 2 is shown the following series of words ("up," "left," and "happy") and is then asked to say aloud their antonyms (opposites). If we later test participants' memories for the words, we will expect better performance for Group 1 if the test involves
identification of the words
Which of the following statements is not true for explicit memory?
explicit memory is typically revealed as a priming effect
When a person experiences familiarity but no accompanying source memory , the effect can be far reaching but is unlikely
to include explicit recollection of a person's name or profession
Participants listen to a series of sentences played against a background of noise. Some of the sentences are identical to sentences heard earlier (without the noise) but other sentences heard in the noise are new. In this setting participants will perceive
the noise as being less loud when it accompanies the familiar sentences
In many circumstances, participants correctly recognize
source confusion
A friend of yours has recently grown a beard. When you encounter him you realize at once that something about his face has changed but you are not certain what has changed. We can conclude
you detected the decrease in fluency in your recognition of your friend's face
Participants are asked to read a series of unrelated words out loud. According to the implicit memory hypothesis described in the text, this experience will help the participants
the next time they try to perceive these same words
In a lexical decision task, a researcher finds no effect of priming. Which of the following statements is a plausible explanation for this?
participants initially heard the word via a tape-recorded list but were tested under conditions where the list was visually presented
Mark suffered a blow to the head many weeks, ago causing retrograde amnesia
events that took place just prior to his injury
Amnesia can provide insight into the role of memory in our everyday life, for example, if H.M was having a conversation with a friend and noticed the friend looking off on the distance and smiling. He was most likely to
forget the conversation
Which of the following statements is true about the role the hippocampus plays in memory?
C.
Jerry a lawyer has read about a case (Jones vs. Arizona) that he thinks will help one of his clients. Jerry wants to make sure that he remembers to discuss the case with his client and that he brings up the case in his opening statements in court. His best approach is likely to be to ?
build multiple retrieval paths between the new case and the situations in which he wishes to use it
In a study by brewer and treyens participants waited in an experimenters office for the experiment to begin. After they left the room they learned that the study was about their memory of that office. This study demonstrated that?
people make assumptions using prior knowledge about what an academic office typically contains.
Will has been to the zoo many times ,usually with his family but also once on a school field trip. When will tries to remember the field trip his recollection is
likely to include elements imported from memories of other zoo trips
This chapter argues that the way the details of complex episodes are held together actually leads to errors. Which component of the connections lead to both successes and errors of memory?
the density of the memory connections
In an experiment group a is asked to read a passage. Group b is asked to read the same passage but is given a prologue that helps their understandings of the passage. When given a recall test.
group B recalled more of the passage but made more intrusion errors than group A
When presented with a list of words along a theme ( bed, rest, slumber, dream, tired ) participants often (mis) recall the theme words as part of the list (e.g. "sleep"). This procedure is commonly referred to as the:
Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott procedure
Memory schemas, or schemata serve as representations of our_____ knowledge
semantic
Which of the following claims regarding schema based knowledge is NOT true?
schema based knowledge relies on remembering specific information within a memory (e.g. although shelves normally contain books I remember that those shelves contain only boxes)
Repeated exposure to a person or situation will cause memory for specific instances to fade. Making it difficult to recall details of any one episode. This can be problematic but it can also be seen as a good thing. In what way does this process benefit us?
it leads to creation of general knowledge
Bartlett presented stories form Native Americans folklore to British participants to read and later asked them to recall details of the story, his findings reveal which important idea about memory?
memory errors are often derived from attempts to understand.
Misleading questions asked after participants have witnessed an event influence their?
immediate reports of the event and their recall of the event if they try to remember it sometime later
Someone versed in memory research could plant false memories. In their friends or family, imagine you want to perform such an (unethical ) act. Which technique is least likely to be effective in planting the false memories?
electrical shock
Which of the following groups is MOST likely to remember the material they are studying?
group 4 has no intention of memorizing the words and attempts
Select the order of processing that most accurately represents the probability an item will be retained (most likely>least likely)
deep elaborate>deep>shallow>maintenance
Is memory for complex scenes similar to memory for words?
yes, organization facilitates memory for both types of stimuli
A participant is asked to memorize a series of word pairs, including the pair "heavy-light" the participant is asked later of any of the following words had been included in the list memorized earlier: lamp, candle, spark, and light. The participant denies having seen any of these words recently this is probably because?
what was memorized was the idea of light as a description of weight, not light as illumination
Which of the following statements is an example of a recognition test
which one of these individuals is the person you saw at the party
In the Remember/Know paradigm, Know responses are Not
given when the participant knows he or she saw the stimulus before, because he or she can recall details about the context in which it was encountered
Michael and Maria both witnessed an auto accident. Maria remembers watching the car race past a stop sign, but she hears Michael report to the police that the car raced past a yield sign. Based on results on similar studies , Maria is likely to recall that she saw
a yield sign, incorporating Michael's report into her own recollection
Someone versed in memory research could plant false memories in the friends or family, imagine you want to perform such an (unethical) act. Which techniques is Least likely to be effective in planting the false memories
electrical shock
Which of the following claims about memory accuracy is NOT true?
Participants are sometimes mistaken in their recollection of an event's minor details, but do not create an entirely new false memory
Whitney witnesses a car accident and then discusses it with Ryan, a passenger in of one of the cars, Ryan wants her to misremember a few critical details, Whitney is unlikely to adopt Ryan's false memories if
Whitney is an adult and Ryan is a child
Which of the following refers to the hypothesis that memories fade or erode with the passage of time
decay
Which of the following is NOT true of memory?
amnesia
The memory that contains the full recollection of our lives is referred to as memory
autobiographical
Our self-schema is not likely to include
Accurate memories about poor grades
Emotions has multiple effects on the encoding and retrieval of memories. Which of the following is most likely to occur during the recall of everyday emotional events
accurate recall of events gist but relatively poor recall of the events background detail
Flashbulb memories are extremely detailed, vivid memories usually associated with highly emotional events. The accuracy of these memories seems
best predicted by the consequentiality of the event to participants lives
Often, people forget information about traumatic events. Repression is one controversial explanation. But other less controversial explanations also exist. Which of the following is NOT a potential explanation for memory loss during a traumatic event
attentional disruption during encoding
You should be skeptical of recovered memories that were repressed because?
some recovered memories turn out to be false memories suggested by therapists
By using leading questions and misinformation researchers have been able to
alter virtually any aspect of participants memories and have even been able to create memories for entire events that never took place
Which of the following statements about memory accuracy is NOT true?
memory errors are more common with "remember" responses, relative to "know" responses
Researchers are interested in how "remember" and "Know judgement are related to memory accuracy. What did they find?
a feeling of remembering is more likely with correct memories than false memories.
A great deal of forgetting may reflect a (perhaps temporary) inability to locate the target information in storage. This sort of forgetting is called?
retrieval failure
Dmitri witnessed a bank robbery but now seems unable to remember what he saw. To improve Dmitri's recall, a friend hypnotizes him and asks him, while he is hypnotized, to recall the crime, Research indicates that if questioned while under hypnosis?
Dmitri will give a more elaborate account (But not more accurate) of the crime than he has on other occasions.
Our "self-schema" is NOT likely to include?
Accurate memories about poor grades
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